Sunday, 14 April 13
What is addiction? It is a repetitive habit pattern that increases risk of disease and/or associated personal and social problems. Elements of Addiction Salience - individuals desire to perform the addictive act/behaviour Mood Modification - people with addictive behaviour often report a ‘high’, ‘buzz’ or a ‘rush’, addicts are known to use addictions for this. Tolerance - addicts tolerance increases therefore they increase the amount to get the same effect Withdrawal Symptoms - unpleasant feelings and physical effects that occur when the addiction is suddenly reduced Relapse - process of stopping the addiction and falling back into it Conflict Maladaptive Behaviour - people with addictive behaviours develop conflict with people around creating social isolation. +/• How many criteria is needed before a person can be said to have an addiction? • Many can tick all above for things like coffee drinking? Are they addicts? It seems like the key is being addicted to something that is harmful. Sunday, 14 April 13
Outline and define what is meant by addiction. (5marks) Addiction is a repetitive habit pattern that increases risk of disease and/ or associated personal and social problems. Most theories say addiction goes through 3 stages, the first is initiation which is how the addiction starts?, then into maintenance, why addict continues?, and finally into relapse, why an addict may stop and start again? Theorists define addiction by 6 sub components of addiction, one is salience this is the desire to perform the addictive act. Another is mood modification such as ‘high’, most addicts perform the addictive act to achieve this. Tolerance is a big one whereby the more the addictive behaviour is done the tolerance levels increase therefore more has to be done to get the same effect. If withdrawing from the addictive behaviour withdrawal symptoms may occur such as unpleasant feelings or physical effects, this may cause relapse to occur. Addicts also tend to develop conflicts with others.
Sunday, 14 April 13
The biological approach
This model can be broken into sub theories – genetic and neurochemical. Genetic/Hereditary Approach: KEY IDEA - that some people are predisposed to be addicts. Evidence - Twin studies (monozygotic twins) - if one twin is an addict the other twin is likely to be genetically predisposed to be an addict to, and are often used to establish there is biological basis to addiction. Hans study of over 300 monozygotic twins and over 300 dizygotic twins - this study found that there was a connection between genetics and social behaviour such as attention seeking, rejecting social norms and alcoholism. A02 (EVALUATION) • The problem with this is that monozygotic twins and families have common environments too. This means the addiction could have been learnt and may not be biological in origin. • Does not identify the gene • Monozygotic twins are not truly identical Sunday, 14 April 13
Thorgeirssons Study (Genetically susceptibility to smoking) he sent a questionnaire to 50,000 people in Iceland asking questions on smoking etc. They studied DNA of over 10,000 smokers or former smokers, they found a variation at 2 points in chromozone 15 were common along those who had lung cancer, this gene affected the amount of cigarettes smoked. +/• Culture difference although cross cultural • Found a correlation not causation • Connects lung cancer with addiction which is not always true • Though finds a specific gene Jellineck (The disease model of addiction) – this model states that addiction has an abnormality in the structure of the CNS. The addict will showing strong desire to stop but will be unable to. At first sight it appears the addict has a choice, however according to this model there is no choice just a compulsion. This view is consistent with the genetic view as the abnormality of the CNS that causes the addiction can be inherited. +/• The...
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