internal phrase structure: clauses. Clauses=phrases
phrase structure rules: how do we organize words?.
Phrases: syntactic units
Tree diagrams – graphical overview of phrase structure
open- add new lexical items to them
|Type |Examples | |Noun |River, intelligence, | | |Nora, fax, blog | |Verb |Discuss, remember, feel, gallop, text annoy | |Adjective |Unhappy, beautiful, tiny, mad, happy | |Adverb |Fast, still, hopefully, quickly |
closed- ‘function words’ – determiners vs auxiliary.
Determiners: numbers, quantities, pronouns, prepositions, conjuctions, etc Auxiliary: modal
|Type |Examples | |Determiner |The, a, this, these | |Numeral |One, five, ten, eighth | |Quantifier |All, each, every, both, | |Pronoun |They, he, she, yours | |Preposition |Without, in , on, over | |Conjunction |And, or, yet, but, so | |Degree Word |Very, so, rather, too | |Auxiliary Verb |Have, be, do | |Modal Verb |May, might, can, could |
Head in every phrase determines syntactic category of the phrase Head= NP, VP, AP, AdvP, PP, XP [placeholder in phrase structure rule indicating a phrase of some type] Clauses: largest syntactic phrase
Cl( NP VP
Phrase structure rules
Cl NP VP John bought a rug. I ate lunch. He ran quickly.
NP (D) (AP) N (XP) the green monster, the snake in the grass
VP (Aux) V (XP) is waiting for a seat, slept, can run quickly
AP (Deg) A very happy, old, green, so tired
AdvP (Deg) Adv very quickly, happily, still, luckily
PP (Deg) P (XP) in the house, over the moon, so in trouble
*Phrase structure rule #1: clause= NP (subject) +VP (predicate) All sentences must have s ubject, not all have an object
Phrase structure rules are not language-universal. They are a part of tacit knowledge of English. Parenthases are optional. Ex. NP((D) (+P)N (XP) here only noun is required. Relative clause: entire clause after the noun. Ex. The boy who is eating the cheese.
“noun phrase is dominated by the higher node”
tree diagrams help understand syntactic ambiguity.
1) lexical- word w/ more than one meaning. NOT illustrated by tree diagrams
-balanced ambiguous words: 2 meanings, = in freq.
-biased: dom/subordinate words, not = in freq
2) syntactic ambiguity – more than one potential struc
yes, illustrated by tree diagrams.
Clauses can contain other clauses.
Unlimited extension: phrases/clauses embedded to infinity. Clauses contain other subordinate clauses. Example of how grammar is ‘generative’ – can produce more meanings. I think Wiley claimed that Elizabeth detests clams from the bay that is famous for shellfish.
some components of sentences are missing, but we still understand them. Ex. “Julio is eager to please” “Julio is eager [for himself] to please [someone] Tree diagrams need placeholders for silent syntactic material
Ex. “The new houses will be fine” subbed: “They will be fine” Antecedent: NP a pronoun refers to. Can be linguistic or pragmatic...