Microbiology Study Guide Chapter 1&3

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Microbiology Lecture Exam #1 Outline

Chapter 1: Microbiology Introduction
I.  Microbiology Definition
II. History of Microbiology (Christian Gram, Robert Koch, Antony van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Hook, Edward Jenner, Louis Pasteur, Elie Metchnikoff, Dmitri Iwanowski, Paul Ehrlich, Alexander Fleming)

II. Scope of Microbiology

A.     Infectious Agents
1.      Prions
2.      Viroids
3.      Viruses
B.     Prokaryotes - Bacteria
1.      Eubacteria
2.      Archaea bacteria
C.     Eukaryotes
1.      Algae
2.      Protozoans
3.      Fungi – Yeasts & Molds
4.      Helminthes
III. Why study Microbiology/Applications of Microbiology  
A.     Food Production
1.      Lactobacillus, Streptococcus,
2.      Saccharomyces cerevisiae
B.     Oxygen production
C.     Nitrogen Fixation
D.     Decomposition
E.      Bioremediation
F.      Antibiotics
G.     Biotechnology and research
H.     Normal flora
I.       Pathogens (malaria parasite, E. coli, Salmonella, Clostridium)  
IV. The Origin of Microorganisms

A.     Spontaneous Generation revisited

1.    Francesco Redi
2.    Lazzaro Spallazani
3.      Louis Pasteur
4.      John Tyndall

B. If not Spontaneous Generation, then what?

1.    Ferdinand Cohn
2. Robert Koch

Chapter 3: Microscopy & Staining
I.  What can we see with a microscope?
A. Micrometer
B.  Nanometer
II. History of Microscopy
A. Robert Hooke
B.  Anton van Leeuwenhoek
III.   Principles of Microscopy
A.  Total Magnification
B.   Resolution/Resolving power
1. Wavelength
2. Numerical aperture
C.  Refraction/Refractive index
D.  Contrast
IV. Light Microscope /Bright field Microscope
A.     Parts and functions
1.      Oculars
2.      Objectives/Revolving nosepiece
3.      Stage
4.      Condenser & Iris diaphragm
5.      Adjustment knobs- Course, fine, condenser and stage

B. Principles of electron microscopy (transmission and scanning electron microscopes).

V.   Staining Techniques

A.     Smear Preparation
B.     Types of dyes – basic, acidic
C.     Types of Staining Procedures
1.      Simple staining
2.      Positive and Negative staining

3.      Differential staining
a.    Gram stain
b. Acid-fast stain

4.      Structural stains
a.    Capsule stain
b.    Endospore stain
c. Flagella stain

Lecture Chapter 3: Prokaryotic Cell
I. Shape:
A. Coccus
B. Bacillus (rod)
C. Coccobacillus
D. Vibrio
E. Spirillum
F. Spirochete

II. Arrangements:
A. For cocci:
1. Chains or Streptococci arrangement
2. Packets (tetrads (4 cells) or 8 cells (Sarcinae)) 3. Clusters or Staphylococci arrangement
B. For bacilli- Single, irregular, stacked or chained rods  
III. External Extensions
A.     Flagella in Gram negative bacteria
1.      Components – Basal body, Hook, Filament 2.      Arrangement – (Mono, Lopho, Amphi or Peri) trichous 3.      Movement – Chemotaxis, Phototaxis, Aerotaxis, Magnetotaxis  

B.     Axial...
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