The History and Scope of Microbiology
Which of the following distinguish the field of microbiology from other fields of biology? a. the size of the organism studied b. the techniques used to study organisms regardless of their size c. both the size of the organism studied and the techniques employed in the study of organisms d. neither the size of the organism studied nor the techniques employed in the study of organisms regardless of their size Who of the following developed a set of criteria that could be used to establish a causative link between a particular microorganism and a particular disease? a. Fracastoro b. Koch c. Pasteur d. Lister Who of the following was the first to observe and accurately describe microorganisms? a. Pasteur b. Lister c. van Leeuwenhoek d. Tyndall Who of the following provided the evidence needed to discredit the concept of spontaneous generation? a. Pasteur b. Koch c. Semmelweiss d. Lister
The concept that living organisms arise from nonliving material is called a. biogenesis. b. cell theory. c. spontaneous generation. d. germ theory. Cells with a relatively simple cell morphology that do not have a true membrane-delimited nucleus are called a. prokaryotes. b. eucaryotes. c. urcaryotes. d. nocaryotes. The concept that human and animal diseases are caused by microorganisms is called the a. cell theory. b. germ theory.
c. d. 8.
causative theory. disease theory.
Cells with a relatively complex morphology that have a true membrane-delimited nucleus are called a. prokaryotes. b. eucaryotes. c. urcaryotes. d. nocaryotes. The first studies delineating the relationship between genes and enzymes were done using which of the following types of microorganisms? a. bacteria b. fungi c. viruses d. algae Antiseptic surgery was pioneered by a. Pasteur. b. Lister. c. Jenner. d. Kitasato. The first surgical antiseptic to be used was a. iodine. b. ethanol. c. phenol. d. none of the above. Old cultures of bacteria that have lost their ability to cause disease are said to be a. impotent. b. virulent. c. pathogenic. d. attenuated. Who is credited with developing and documenting the first vaccination procedure against smallpox? a. Koch b. Pasteur c. Jenner d. Lister Who is credited with developing a vaccine against chicken cholera? a. Koch b. Pasteur c. Jenner d. Lister
The use of enrichment cultures and selective media was pioneered by a. Beijerinck. b. Jenner. c. Pasteur. d. von Behring.
Chapter 2 The Study of Microbial Structure: Microscopy and Specimen Preparation
Acid-fast organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis resist decolorization by an acidalcohol wash because of the high concentration of __________ in their cell walls. a. proteins b. carbohydrates c. lipids d. peptidoglycan Prior to staining, smears of microorganisms are heat-fixed in order to a. kill the organism. b. ensure removal of dust particles from the slide surface. c. attach it firmly to the slide. d. create small pores in cells that facilitates binding of stain to cell structures. Small internal cell structures are best visualized with a a. light microscope. b. dark-field microscope. c. transmission electron microscope. d. scanning electron microscope. In transmission electron microscopy, spreading a specimen out in a thin film with uranyl acetate, which does not penetrate the specimen, is called a. freeze-etching. b. simple staining. c. shadow staining. d. negative staining. Scanning electron microscopy is most often used to reveal a. surface structures. b. internal structures. c. both surface and internal structures simultaneously. d. either surface or internal structures, but not simultaneously. As the magnification of a series of objective lenses increases, the working distance a. increases. b. decreases. c. stays the same. d. cannot be predicted. The composition of the __________...