Marketing Clow

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Chapter 6

Advertising Design:

Theoretical Frameworks and Types of Appeals

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Students should be able to answer the following questions:

1) How can the hierarchy of effects model and a means-ends analysis help an advertising creative design better commercials? 2)How can leverage points and taglines increase advertising effectiveness? 3)What roles do visual and verbal images play in advertisements? 4)What are the seven main types of advertising appeals?

5)How can fear be used to create an effective advertisement? 6)How can humor be used to create an effective advertisement? 7)Why does sex play such a prominent role in advertising? 8)How can music, rationality, and scarcity be used to increase advertising effectiveness? 9)What are the primary areas of concern in international advertising?

LEAD-IN VIGNETTE

Hyundai Motor Company: A Small Start-up Becomes a Powerful Player Questions for Students:

1. Does the name Hyundai have the image of quality in your mind? 2. Do you know anyone who owns a Hyundai? Is the person proud of the car? 3. How should Hyundai be advertised in the future, especially after the economy recovers?

CHAPTER OVERVIEW

Two major topics are covered in this chapter. The first is the three theoretical approaches to advertising design:

1. The hierarchy of effects model
2. Means-ends theory
3. Visual and verbal imaging

The second topic is to review, in detail, the major appeals used by advertisers. The goal of the account executive and the creative is to select the appeal that has the best chance of leading to the desired outcome or behavior.

From there, the actual message content is developed. Before beginning the process of creating the ad, it is important to remember the steps taken up to this point. These are summarized by noting the items in the creative brief.

CHAPTER OUTLINE

The Creative Brief

The elements of a creative brief were introduced in Chapter 5 and are shown in Figure 6.1:

• The objective of the ad
• The target audience
• The message theme
• The support
• Any constraints to be included

Learning Objective # 1: How can the hierarchy of effects model and a means-ends analysis help an advertising creative design better commercials?

Advertising Theory

In developing an advertisement for an advertising campaign, there are theoretical frameworks that can be useful, including:

• The hierarchy of effects model
• A means-ends theory
• Visual and verbal frameworks

Hierarchy of Effects

The hierarchy of effects model is helpful in clarifying the objectives of an advertising campaign as well as the objective of a particular advertisement.

The model suggests that a consumer or a business buyer moves through a series of six steps when being convinced to make a purchase:

1. Awareness
2. Knowledge
3. Liking
4. Preference
5. Conviction
6. The actual purchase

Although the hierarchy of effects model helps creatives to understand the impact of an advertisement on viewers, some of its underlying principles have been questioned. For instance, there are times when consumers may first make a purchase and then later develop knowledge, liking, preference, and conviction.

The major benefit of the hierarchy of effects model is that it is one method that can be used to identify the typical steps consumers and businesses take when making purchases.

The components of the hierarchy of effects approach highlight the various responses that advertising or other marketing communications must accomplish.

The hierarchy of effects model has many similarities with theories regarding attitudes and attitudinal change, especially regarding cognitive, affective, and conative components....
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