1. Identify the major similarities and differences between public speaking and everyday conversation. Similarities| Differences|
~ Logical organization of thoughts (Message organized by a speaker)~ Tailoring your message to your audience (explain something differently to a child than you would to a grandparent, or a peer)~ Telling stories/relaying information for maximum impact (Build up, adjustment to punch line)~ Adapting to listener feedback (react to verbal, facial, and physical responses from listeners)| ~ P.S is more structured (time limitations, one-sided, less conversational; requires planning & preparation)~ P.S requires more formal language (elevated, polished, special language, no slang)~ P.S requires a different method of delivery (avoiding vocalized pauses or “clutter” words: great control over mannerism; vocal adjustment)|
2. Discuss methods of controlling nervousness and making it work for, rather than against, the speaker 1. Acquire speaking experience (make it less of an “unknown”; improve via trial and error) 2. Prepare, prepare, prepare (increases confidence, knowledge) 3. Think positively (convert negative thoughts to positive ones) 4. Visualize (create positive mental images)
5. Know that most nervousness is not visible
6. Don’t expect perfection (it’s an act of communication, not a performance; minor errors often unnoticed) 3. Identify and discuss the basic elements of the speech communication process 1. Speaker: the person presenting an oral message to a listener. 2. Message: whatever a speaker communicates to someone else a. Includes intended as well as actual message; goal is for them to be the same 3. Channel: means by which message is communicated (in-person, telephone; multiple channels for different audiences) 4. Listener: the person who receives the speaker’s message b. Importance of listener frame of reference – tailor your message to the likely frames of reference of your audience members 5. Feedback: messages, usually nonverbal, sent from listener to speaker (applause, slouching) 6. Interference: anything that impedes communication of a message c. Internal: individuals’ moods
d. External: noise distraction
7. Situation: the time and place in which speech communication occurs – context e. Messages and delivery must be adapted to situation
i. 5 minutes left to finish 7 minutes speech.
4. Define Ethnocentrism, and explain why speakers need to avoid it ~ Ethnocentrism: The belief that one’s own group or culture is superior to all other groups or culture. (Unintentional, but nonetheless harmful) ~ To avoid: adapt message to the cultural values and expectations of listeners. * Learn about audience
* Be alert to audience feedback
5. Explain why a strong sense of ethical responsibility is vital for public speakers. * Plato said “all public speakers should be truthful and devoted to the good of society” * Your ethical decisions will be guided by your values, your conscience, your sense of right and wrong. * Sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines * Make sure you prepare fully, so that you don’t communicate erroneous information or misleading advice. 6. List and describe the five guidelines for ethical speechmaking. * Make sure your goals are ethically sound
* Worth goals
* Ask ethical questions
* Cannot escape assessing the ethical soundness of your goals * Be fully prepared for each speech
* You have an obligation to yourself and your listeners * Being prepared for speech involves everything from analyzing your audience to creating visual aids, organizing your ideas, to rehearsing your delivery * Be fully informed on your subject. Get your facts rights. * Be honest in what you say
* Most important part...