Stats Notes Week Two
Describing Data
Mean-average (takes every value into account- Sum of all Values/total number of values=mean Median-what data is in the middle (exact middle value)?
Mode-what value occurs most frequently in the data?
Interval and Ratio Data
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval-best data
Ratio-best data
Measures of Variation
Outlier-high-end/low-end
Interpret the measures of central tendency-mean, median, mode Measures of variability-range, standard deviation (SD) =square root of variance is SD Standard Scores
Zscores-table of standard z scores
Tdistributions-test to see if variable A = variable B interval/ratio data/normal curve either they = each other or they do not-Mean of A/ Mean of B 2 tailed test is easier but yields less information than 1 tail Explanatory variable-explaining variable

Week 3 Quiz Chapters 4, 5, 6
Study Reading from Week 2
Standard Deviation convert to percentages

Normal Distribution?
Rule for normal distribution. (MEMORIZE) Chapter 5
Normal distribution illustrating the 68%-95%-99.7%
About 68% of the values fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean… …About 95% of the values fall within 2 standard deviations… …and 99.7% of the values fall within 3 standard deviations. * Definition- about 68% (more precisely, 68.3%), or just over two-thirds, of the data points fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean. * About 95% (

Simple rule-called the 68-95-99.7 gives precise guidelines for the percentage of data values that lie within 1, 2, and 3 standard deviations of the mean for any normal distribution. If you do not have normal distribution, this does not apply

...HCS/438 DQ’s
Week 1:
DQ1: What are the differences between descriptive and inferential statistics?
According to Bennett (2009), the biggest difference between descriptive and inferential statistics is that descriptive statistics "deals with describing raw data in the form of graphics and sample of statistics" and inferential statistics "deals with estimating population parameters from sample data." This means that inferential statistics would be an estimate because the data would be estimated from sample data rather than using specific data whereas descriptive statistics would be more accurate. An example of descriptive statistics would be trying to find an average of something such as a G.P.A. or your overall grade in a class. Inferential statics can be used to find the effectiveness of a new medication on a target group.
References:
Bennett, J.O., Briggs, W.L., & Trivola, M.F. (2009). Statistical reasoning for everyday life (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
DQ2: What are the four levels of management?
The four levels of management are:
The nominal level of measurement is the simplest level of variables such as hair color or gender.
Ordinal level of measurement is data with a ranking or ordering scheme such as a star rating used on movies.
Interval level of measurement is when intervals are meaningful but ratios are not such as Fahrenheit temperatures.
Ratio level of measurement is when intervals and ratios are both...

...Using Statistical Information
University of Phoenix
Using Statistical Information
Statistics have become critical to the operation of any medical facility. At Samaritan Medical Center (SMC), we routinely look at data to guide our workflow, staffing and patient satisfaction. One of the most commonly referenced statistical databases used at our facility is Press Ganey. Press Ganey utilizes a mailed survey to a random selection of discharged patients to gauge the quality of care given to a given patient, based on their perception of the hospital visit. (Press Ganey, 2010).
The Press Ganey data is generated from a comprehensive patient survey tool, which is divided into multiple areas. This division looks at the patient’s visit by location, provider and individual elements in each area. (Press Ganey, 2010). The resulting data is then presented in different frequency tables. This data encompasses both descriptive and inferential statistics.
A descriptive statistic is used to describe a specific set of measurements. (Bennett, 2009). An example of how Press Ganey uses descriptive statistics would be our facility’s quarterly ranking percentile. This information is presented based upon the overall patient satisfaction rating averaged from the responses received from the patient surveys that are returned in the mail. Thus this data is born out of the inferential statistics gathered in the survey. This result is given in a percentage of satisfaction, which is...

...University of Phoenix
HCS/438 (Statistical Applications )
Quiz#2 - 2-25-2012 - Esmaail Nikjeh
Name: ________________________
True or False Questions; Please select the correct answer. (1 points each)
T F 1. The probability that X takes on a value that is between 3 and inclusive of 4 can be written as P(3 < X ( 4).
T F 2. P(X > x ) + P(X < x) + P(X = x) = 1.
T F 3. If P(X > x) = 0.34 and P(X = x) = 0.10, then P(X ( x) = 0.56.
T F 4- Using the classical viewpoint, the probability of an event happening is defined as the number of favorable outcomes divided by the total number of possible outcomes.
T F 5- The probability assigned to an event that is certain not to occur is 1.0.
Multiple Choices
6- When collecting data, the set of all possible outcomes or values that could occur is called
a. an experiment.
b. the sample space.
c. the random variable.
d. an event.
7- A store manager found that 20 of his 50 ties in stock are striped. What is the probability that a random selection of a tie to show a customer will be striped?
a. 0
b. 0.2
c. 0.4
d. 0.5
8- The minimum value that any probability can be is _________ and the maximum value is _________.
a. 0, 1
b. –1, 0
c. –1, 1
d. 0, (
Use the following information for questions 9 – 12. Please show your works.
Suppose we select 200 adults in a certain...

...As we analyze the factors contributing to health care costs we must find a solution that provides high-quality care for an aging population. Improvements to modern medicine are prolonging life causing a schism between a health care system oriented towards acute care and the increasing chronic care needs of older adults. Studies do show that health care costs for older Americans account for one third of all national health care expenditures. This being said the average expenditure for health care services for adults 65 and over is nearly four times the cost of those under 65. More significant changes need to be considered given the financial crisis our health care system faces. Health care costs are not solely due to longevity; consider increased utilization, new medical technologies, general inflation, fraud, and waste and abuse. This paper will discuss one article to be used in my final presentation on health care for anaging population.
Data collection procedures
The study on chronic health conditions used a questionnaire presented to study participants by in-person and telephone interview using computer-assisted software. They also used the Statistics Canada Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) for age prevalence patterns and to show how chronic condition prevalence varies by age group. The use of the CCHS survey for historical data and comparisons is very appropriate for this study. The use of a questionnaire, while not ideal, is appropriate for the large...

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Legal Issues In Health Care
Alexandra Marie Canfield
HCS 430
9/8/2014
Christie Artuso
Regulatory Agency Paper
The agencies that are in charge of monitoring health care facilities and practitioners are known as health care regulation agencies. These agencies also provide the organizations with information about changes in the industry. At the federal, state, and local level the agencies establish rules and regulations that health care organizations have to follow mandatorily. Some agencies, especially those that provide accreditation for health care professionals, require no mandatory participation. The objective of this paper is to examine one of those health care regulatory agencies; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The audience will learn more about the history of the organization as well as responsibilities and effects of this agency on the health care industry.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was created on July 1st, 1946 under the name Communicable Disease Center in Atlanta, Georgia. The whole organization occupied one floor of a small building. The first goal as an organization was simple; it was to prevent malaria from spreading across the nation. As a team with this goal the CDC was armed with a budget of $10 million and less than 400 employees. The founder Dr. Joseph Mountin continued to advocate for the public and its health issues, he pushed to have the CDC extend its responsibilities to other...

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Communications Paper
HCS 490
2/10/2014
Communications Paper
In order for any business to operate efficiently, there are many things that need to be in place. One aspect that is possibly one of the most important is communication. Without effective communication, there is potential for many things to go wrong. In healthcare, there are many different forms of communication. A newer, but growing form of communication is Electronic Medical Records (EMR). EMRs are a computerized system for communication between physicians regarding patient’s medical information. Although an effective form of communication, there can be some drawbacks to this method of communication.
According to Awokola, Abioye-Kuteyi, Otoru, Oyegbade, Awokola, Awokola, & Ezeoma (2012) “It is widely accepted that EMRs are superior to paper based records.
This is mainly attributed to the non-availability of “multiple access” to paper records i.e. only one person or one group of people can access one paper case note per unit time. Also, natural elements easily affect paper, for example, water, fire, wind and sunlight.” The elements play a minor role in paper charts since they are stored in filing cabinets and are safe from all of these examples for the most part. However, since the electronic medical records can be accessed from practically anywhere by multiple people at a time, there does not have to be fighting over a single chart. Another benefit to the patient is that the...

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Telehealth Service
HCS 531
May 13, 2013
Ms. Norma Wright
Telehealth Service
In today's world, technology is advancing rapidly, and communications, health records, and quality of care in health care is changing for the better. Telehealth is still new to the heath care industry; however, this new method shows an increase in contact between patients and the medical organization. Telehealth is a technology foundation that uses electronic information and telecommunications for long-distance health care, by way of videoconferencing, the Internet, store-and forward imaging, streaming medical, and worldly and wireless communication. Telehealth is a way for medical organizations to improve and increase health care to individuals in need.
Describing Telehealth
Telehealth is a new health care technology that delivers health care, health care information, and health care education from a distance, for example teleradiology, tele-education, or telemonitoring (What is Teleheatlh?, n.d). Telehealth provides a means for healthcare professionals to monitor data on specific aspects of a patient's health, such as sensors that can monitor oxygen amount in a patient's blood. Teleradiology (health care information) can consist of such things as test results forwarded to another healthcare facility for diagnosis. Tele-education (education) is about presentation given by specialists to general practitioners, and telemonitoring (delivers health care) is similar to a home...

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Demographics Paper
HCS 490
2/03/2014
Demographics Paper
There are many factors that play into the needs and services of a population in terms of health care. The population in general is something that typically cannot be controlled. According to Yali and Revensons, (2004), “Given the current levels of social and racial disparities in health and the likelihood that these disparities will not decrease under the current health system, we presume that as the American population continues to change, these disparities will have an even greater impact on health “(pg. 147).With the population constantly growing, another element is the age of that population. The population aged 85 and over, the group most likely to need health and long-term care services, is projected to increase by 350% between the years 2000 and 2050. Although alarming, this would not be such a problem if it weren’t for the fact that the working age population is a much smaller number. Those working are the ones that are currently supplying taxes for government funded programs. This means that there will be less people paying the taxes that are necessary to pay for public programs for the older population and less people available to provide the services that older people need (Humphreys, 2012).
The older population is going to have to deal with chronic diseases such as heart disease and osteoporosis that will require long term care. Medicine styles will need to change from...