Chapter 2
11. Calculate descriptive statistics
Mean: 2
Median: 2
sum of squared deviations: 56
Variance: 2.8
standard deviation: 1.67332

12. Calculate descriptive statistics
Mean: 1,112 the mean is 56.5; 1,1245 the mean is 123; 1,1361 the mean is 181; 1,1372 the mean is 186.5; 1,1472 the mean is 236.5 Median: 1,112 the median is 56.5; 1,1245 the median is 123; 1,1361 the median is 181; 1,372 the median is 186.5; 1,1472 the median is 236.5 sum of squared deviations: 1,112 is 6160.5; 1,1245 is 29768; 1,361 is 64800; 1,372 is 68820.5; 1,472 is 110920.5 Variance: 1,112 is 6160.5; 1,1245 is 29768; 1,361 is 64800; 1,372 is 68820.5; 1,472 is 110920.5 standard deviation: 1,112 is 78.48885; 1,245 is 172.5341; 1,361 is 254.5584; 1,372 is 262.3366; 1,472 is 333.0473

13. Calculate descriptive statistics
Mean: 3.166667
Median: 3.25
sum of squared deviations: .533333
Variance: .106667
standard deviation: .326599

16. Calculate, explain, and speculate about the descriptive statistics

a.Figure the mean and standard deviation for the governors and for the CEOs. Governors
44
36
52
40
43mean
6.831300511standard deviation

b.Explain what you have done to a person who has never had a course in statistics. In order to calculate the mean or average for the governors and CEO’s, I added together all the figures and divided that sum by 4 since there are 4 numbers. Calculate the standard deviation by getting the average of the average (mean) of the numbers. So the average of 43 for the governors is 6.831300511 and the average for the CEO’s is 12.64911064 c.Note the ways in which the means and standard deviations differ, and speculate on the possible meaning of these differences, presuming that they are representative of U.S. governors and large corporations’ CEOs in general. From these results, it appears that CEO’s have larger desks than the...

...Step 1: Aron, Aron, and Coups, (2009) “restate the question as a research hypothesis and a null hypothesis about the populations” (p. 115). Here one makes a research hypothesis concerning a predicted relation among populations. The null and research hypothesizes are the opposite of each other. A correct research hypothesis means the null hypothesis cannot be correct, and a correct null hypothesis means the research hypothesis cannot be correct.
Step 2: Aron, Aron, and Coups, (2009) “determine the characteristics of the comparison distribution” (p. 115). By reaching a true null hypothesis the population situation represents the comparison distribution, which is the distribution compared to the score and based on the results of the sample.
Step 3: Aron, Aron, and Coups, (2009) “determine the cutoff sample score on the comparison distribution at which the null hypothesis should be rejected” (p. 115). Here one rejects the null hypothesis if the point of the cutoff sample score reaches or exceeds the sample score. If the null hypothesis is true the Z score is set at a score, which would be unlikely.
Step 4: Aron, Aron, and Coups, (2009) “determine your sample’s score on the comparison distribution” (p. 115). Here one gathers the test’s sample results.
Step 5: Aron, Aron, and Coups, (2009) “decide whether to reject the null hypothesis” (p. 115). Here one either declares the test invalid or rejects the null hypothesis by comparing the cut off Z score to the sample’s...

...evaluate the procedure and outcomes isn't a study utilizing the scientific investigation method. The scientific investigation procedure is a several-stage procedure where the measures are inter-linked with the other measures along the way. If modifications are produced in one-step of the procedure, the investigator must review all of those other measures to ensure the changes are represented through the procedure.
As illustrated in the text, Cooper & Schindler (2014). “The research process begins much as the vignette suggests. A management dilemma triggers the need for a decision or in other situations, a controversy arises, a major commitment of resources is called for, or conditions in the environment signal the need for a decision. Such events cause managers to reconsider their
purpose or objectives, define a problem for solution, or develop strategies for solutions they have identified (Ch. 4 pg. 77)”. The causes for research are many but the process or stages the research should take is systematic and strategized as discussed in the text.
Purpose of Business Research
Reading the article by Field (1964) titled “Marketing and Business Research”, the purpose of his research is to find a reason for the book he has reviewed titled “Marketing and Business Research”, written by Myron S. Heidingsfield and Frank H. Eby Jr.
The other article written by Tootelian (1976) titled “Business Research Methods” is also a book review with the title...

...deviation is 5.916
CEO- Mean is 44 and standard deviation is 10.954
b) In order to calculate the mean or average for the governors and CEO’s, I added together all the figures and divided that sum by 4 since there are 4 numbers. Calculate the standard deviation by getting the average of the average (mean) of the numbers. So the average of 43 for the governors is 5.916 and the average of 44 for the CEO’s is 10.954.
c) Judging from the results we can see that the CEO’s have bigger desks than the governors. The difference between mean and standard deviation is that mean is the sum of the scores divided by the number of scores and standard deviation is the square root of the average of the squared deviations from the mean.
21
Chapter 3
14.
a) z (340) = (340-300)/20 = 40/20 = 2
b) z(310) = (310-300)/20 = 10/20 = .5
c) z(260) = (260-300)/20 = -40/20 = -2
Raw Scores
d) z = 2.4 score = 300 + 20 x 2.4 = 300 +48 = 348
e) z = 1.5 score = 3000 + 20 x 1.5 = 300 + 30 = 330
f) z = 0 , score = 300
g) z = -4.5 , score = 300 + 20 x -4.5 = 300 -90 = 210
15. z(81) = (81-50)/2 = 31/20 = 1.55, z(6.4) = (6.4-0)/5 = 1.28. So, the verbal ability test is higher. You need to figure this out by standardizing both scores by converting them to Z scores.
22.
a) It's a non-random sample because non-random samples are limited because they are not as representative of the population you're studying as random samples are.
b) The...

...Define descriptive and inferential statistics
Statistical analysis can be an intimidating task for many. Most people do not have good experiences with math in grade school or college causing them to dread the use of numbers or taking any further math courses. Although it may not be as daunting as it seems. “Descriptive statistical analysis is the simplest statistical analysis available” (Delaney, 2009, p. 1). The intention of descriptive statistics is to describe the sample group from where the data came from. Data is examined closely so that the important features can be described. The processes used allow for order to be used in the data so sample group’s story can be told. Descriptive statistics simplify large amounts of data in a sensible way. Inferential statistics reach conclusions that go beyond the initial data. It is used to make assumptions from the data collected. For example, inferential statistics will try to conclude what the sample group might think from the data collected. It helps generalize the facts that are represented from the population. Descriptive statistics are generally characterized from inferential statistics. The difference between the two applied branches of statistics is descriptive is describing the group and inferential is making a conclusions or judgments that go beyond the immediate data.
Delaney, L. (2009). Descriptive statistics: simply telling a story. British Journal of Cardiac Nursing, 4(6), 283-289. Retrieved from EBSCOhost....

...
Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality
Stefani Castillo
University of Phoenix
PSY 250
Sandra Coswatte
June 2, 2014
Biological and Humanistic Approached to Personality
Through the use of this paper the agreement between Maslow and Rogers when it comes to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs will be shown. It will also focus on the humanistic and biological approaches to personality. According to Orana (2009), Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a theory that is considered to still be valid today in the areas of management training, personal development, and the understanding of the motivation of humans. This theory was first introduced in the book Personality and Motivation which was published in 1954, and written by Maslow.
Maslow
In 1943 Maslow wrote a paper titled “A Theory of Human Motivation”, this is where his concept of a hierarchy of needs was first introduced. The basis of this hierarchy is that each person must be motivated when it comes to fulfilling their basic needs first before they are at all able to move on to the level of needs that will come next. The bottom part of his pyramid of needs covered our most basic of needs such as food and water, and the needs that are considered harder to reach are put on the top. Throughout the progression of the pyramid a person will become my socially and psychologically invested in the needs they are trying to...

...Research, Statistics, and Psychology paper
June 25, 2012
Statistical Reasoning in Psychology
Deborah Suzzane
Research, Statistics, and Psychology paper
Research is an important part in the field of psychology. It is used to establish facts and is defined as an organized and systematic way to find answers to questions (Henrichsen, Smith, & Baker, 1997). There are four main goals of research in psychology: Describe, predict, explain, and apply. Researchers use the scientific method to meet these goals. The scientific method is described as a process involving fives steps to conduct research: Step one- Determine a problem or make an observation. Second step- Development of the hypothesis. Third step- Testing the hypothesis. Fourth step- Recording the observations. Fifth step- Draw a conclusion(s) (Cowens, 2006).
According to Kampis and Karsai (2010), the scientific method can best be learned through research. In addition, to conduct thorough research related to behavior, the scientific method should be followed. The scientific method involves five steps. The primary function of the scientific method begins with an observation. Through an observation, whether individual...

...associated with time periods where irregular behaviors inhibit ones success, and happiness (sharp Healthcare, 2014). A persistently sad, or empty mood is displayed more than is usual, or for what is not a usual response to environmental triggers (Sharp, Healthcare, 2014). As these feelings are quite debilitating on regular life activities, another urgent feeling which a hospital may aid in is suicidal thoughts (Sharp Healthcare, 2014). Other areas that indicate a major depressive disorder can include; changing eating habits, changing weight, changing sleeping patterns, decreased energy, and decreased ability to make decisions and concentrate (Sharp Healthcare, 2014). To be considered for major depressive disorder a person will have at least a two week singular episode where there is a display of at least five of the afore listed traits (Sharp Healthcare, 2014).
The understanding of major depressive disorder is specific to a culture of people who adhere to the APA, American Psychological Association. The APA system is the one which placed the rules for how diagnosis should take place. However, this concept is an American one, and it is important to understand that opinions on the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment, are all different from culture to culture. Further more, the very concept of depression as a somatic response to guilt or remorse with their found association (Jenkins). Culture therefore, can define even how one feels emotions, and thus to...

...Week 4 Practice Problems
11. List the five steps of hypothesis testing, and explain the procedure and logic of each
Step 1: During this step of hypothesis testing, the query is stated again as a research theory and a null theory regarding the populations. The null and research hypothesizes are the opposites of each other. This step is necessary because it explains the theory and recognizes the populations, which will be worked throughout the study.
Step 2: During this second step, the characteristics of the comparison distribution is determined. In instances that the null theory is correct, the comparison distribution is compared to the score depending on the sample’s outcomes.
Step 3: During this third step, the cutoff sample score on the comparison distribution at which the null hypothesis should be rejected is determined (Aron, Aron, and Coups, 2009). Here a researcher rejects the null hypothesis if the point of the cutoff sample score reaches or exceeds the sample score. If the null hypothesis is true the Z score is set as a score, which is actually unlikely.
Step 4: This is the step in which the test’s sample results are gathered and the sample’s score on the comparison distribution is determined.
Step 5: Lastly, this is when the decision whether the null hypothesis is rejected or not is made. A researcher either declares the test invalid or rejects the null hypothesis by comparing the cut off z score to the sample’s Z score....

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