Geography Exam Notes

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Geo Notes
The Rock Cycle

Transforming Rocks

* The continental renewal of the surface if the earth
* The ‘cycle’ transform in 3 ways
* Erosion
* Ice
* Water
* Wind
* Heat
* Pressure
* Sediment
Igneous
Metamorphic
Sedimentary
Magma/Lava
Erosion
Erosion
Pressure
Erosion
Pressure
Heat
Cool
Sediment
Igneous
Metamorphic
Sedimentary
Magma/Lava
Erosion
Erosion
Pressure
Erosion
Pressure
Heat
Cool
Rock material evolves under changing physical conditions at or beneath the earth’s surface

* Calcification
* As water evaporates, water from the bottom comes up. Nutrients and calcium gets drawn to the surface. That process creates a poisonous layer * Leaching
* Moves water through the soil and removes all of the nutrients

Theory of Continental Drift

* Alfred Wegener put forth the theory of continental drift in 1915

Jigsaw fit of continent
* Continent look like they could be fit almost perfectly
* See the east coast of South America and the West Coast of Africa

Climate Fit
* Scientist found evidence of glaciers in placed which no longer get snow * Striation (gouges in rock caused by glacial movement) found in the bedrock in India

Fossil Fit
* Scientist found fossil remains of certain animals and plants on both sides of the Atlantic * Somewhere fresh water species

Geological Fit
* Mountain ranges and soil samples were found it be similar on both sides of the Atlantic * Appalachian (N.A) & Caledonian (Scandinavia) Mountain ranges

Into the Earth
* As you travel towards the Earth’s core both temperature and density increases * Therefore, each layer of the Earth ‘floats’ on the layer below it * Convection current move the plates around

* Where plates meet/separate, earthquake, and volcanoes and mountain occurrence * All of this action occurs at the plate boundaries

Climate vs. Weather

Climate
* Long term pattern of weather
* 40 years per average
* Focus on temperature on precipitation
* Two primary types of climates
* Maritime
* Located close to large bodies of water
* Continental
* Located away from large bodies of water
* Climate affects
* Where we live
* What food we grow
* How we construct buildings
* Travel
* Major Climate events
* Ice age
* Global warming
* Drought

Weather
* Day to day condition of the atmosphere
* Weather Variables Reported:
* High/low temperature
* Wind Speed
* Precipitation
* Humidity
* Etc.
* Weather influenced
* Clothes we wear
* Activity we do
* Major weather events
* Hurricanes
* Tornadoes
* Heat waves
* Snow storm
* Etc.

Canada’s Eco zones

* A large scale region based on its unique ecological characteristics * Canada has 20 eco zones (15 terrestrial, 5 marines)
* Each eco zone is distinguished from other by its unique vegetation, wildlife, climate, landforms and human activities * Eco zones are useful for general national reporting, research and for placing Canada’s ecosystem diversity in a North American or global context

Longitude and Latitude

* The geographic canter of the world is the Gulf of Guinea off the west coast of Africa at 0º to 0º

Latitude
Definition
Imaginary parallel lines running each and west diving the world into degrees north/south of the equator (Approx. 111 km apart)

90º



90º

Primary line
Equator at 0º
* Divides the world into Northern Southern hemisphere

Other lines
Tropics
= Tropic of Cancer (Northern) = 23.5º N
= Tropic of Capricorn (Southern) = 23.5 º S

Circles
= Arctic Circle (Northern) = 66º N
= Atlantic Circle (Southern) = 66º S

Longitude
Definition
Imaginary lines running North/South dividing the world into...
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