CHAPTER 1: THE DYNAMICS OF PEOPLE AND ORGANIZATIONS
- Organizations are complex systems;There are no perfect solutions to organizational problems - Human behavior in organizations are unpredictable = (Differences in needs, experiences, & personal value systems = different behaviors)
UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
1 DEFINITION: Organizational Behavior (O.B)
- Systematic study and careful application of knowledge about how people – in individuals or groups – act w/in organizations. - Identifies ways in which people can act more effectively - Scientific discipline in w/c a large number of research studies & Conceptual developments are constantly adding to its knowledge base. - Applied science = info. On effective practices in 1 organization is being applied in other organizations - Provides a useful set of tools at many levels of analysis (5 levels): o Individuals(helps look into behavior of individuals in organizations) o Interpersonal Relations(Aids in understanding complexities when 2 people interact) o Small groups (For examining dynamics of relationships in S.G - formal teams/ informal groups) o Intergroup relations(Coordination of 2 or more groups – ex. Engineering and marketing) o Whole Systems(Managing/viewing whole orgs – interorganizational relationships) __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ A. GOALS: (4 major thrusts of most sciences) – DESCRIBE, UNDERSTAND, PREDICT, CONTROL 1. DESCRIBE: Know systematically how people behave under a variety of conditions - Achieving this helps managers to communicate about human behavior at work using a common language 2. UNDERSTAND: Understand why people behave like they do; managers should know underlying reasons 3. PREDICT: Predicting future employee behavior could save time and effort or do preventive actions 4. CONTROL: Partially control and develop human activity at work - Managers are liable for performance outcomes
- Managers need to make an impact on employee behavior, skill development, team effort and productivity.
* Tools of O.B could be used to limit employees’ freedom, rights, thoughts, actions, etc. BUT human behavior is used for human benefit. * These goals are needed and can be applied to all types of organizations (school, government, businesses, etc.) __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ B. FORCES: (4 Area Classifications) - (PEOPLE, STRUCTURE, TECHNOLOGY, ENVIRONEMNT) - Affects the nature of organizations
- Living, thinking, feeling beings who work in an organization to achieve their objectives. - Organizations exist to serve people not the other way around. - The workforce today is not similar to the past bec. The workforce has become a rich melting pot of DIVERSITY (Employees bring a wide array of educational backgrounds, talents, perspectives to their jobs) (Also presents a challenge for managers – unique expressions, lifestyles, interests, values, etc.)
- Make up internal social system of organizations
- System consists of: individuals, small/large groups, unofficial informal groups and official formal ones - Groups are dynamic: they form, change, and disband
* Some changes in the Labor Force:D: DecreaseI: Increase 1. (D) in worth ethics; (I) in personal growth and leisure 2. (D) in automatic acceptance of authority ; (I) in desire to control and autonomy...