Fall Final Exam Whap Review

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Civilizations:

East Asia
Shang Dynasty
a) Pan Ku (mythic ancestor of Chinese), stories about early kings b) Hwang He River (Yellow River), isolated from rest of world-> little trade c) Line of kings called the Shang, powerful military

d) Developed ideas based on basic harmony
Ancestor worship
Gods controlled all aspects of peoples’ lives
e) Irrigation and advanced technology
Skilled in pottery and silk
Horse drawn chariots
Good bronze workers
Oracle bones (writing)
f) Extended family was important, patriarchal structure
g) Invasions cause temporary decline- less of a break between river valley society and later Chinese civilizations than others

Zhou Dynasty
a) Wu Wang came from northern China
b) Extended territory to Yangtze River (Middle Kingdom)
c) Alliance/ feudal system (standard in agricultural kingdoms) Mandate of Heaven
Bureaucracies in some complex kingdoms
d) Beginnings of Confucianism and Daoism
Philosophy lessened political confusion
e) Creation of Mandarin Chinese- language unity
Trade of luxury items
f) Classes
1) Landowning aristocracy and educated bureaucrats
2) Laboring masses, peasantry, urban artisans
3) Mean people (performing artists)
Patriarchal society
g) Nomadic invasions, regional disloyalties

Qin Dynasty
a) Qin Shi Huangdi took control and made himself the sole ruler b) Strong economy based agriculture
c) Powerful army with iron weapons
Conquered surrounding territories and unified region
d) Legalism dominant belief system
e) Great Wall of China- empire was well organized, centralized and territorial Standardized all laws, currencies, weights, measures, and systems of writings f) Patriarchal
g) Peasant rebels

Han Dynasty
a) Wu Ti
b) Enlarged empire to central Asia
c) Political organization
d) Buddhism spread along Silk Road
Believed politicians should be educated and excellent communicators e) Trade thrived along Silk Road
Civil service exam based on teachings of Confucius
Invented paper, sundials, calendars, rudder(navigation), compass, broadened use of metals f) Social structures (classes, position of women)
g) Invasions, tax problems, population increase, corruption of court officials, unable to control large estate owners

South Asia
Mohenjo Daro and Harappa
a) Historical background (founders)
b) Indus River Valley, huge mountains that limited interaction, but Khyber Pass provided connection c) Big cities with master plans, uniformly constructed
Strong central government led by priest-king
d) Polytheistic
e) Sophisticated wastewater systems
f) Social structures (classes, position of women)
g) ?- invasions, arrival of Aryans

Maurya India
a) Aryans- developed origins of Hinduism in the Vedas (epics) Founded by Chandragupta Maurya who unified small kingdoms
Ashoka Maurya led empire to greatest heights
b) Indus and Ganges Rivers, Deccan plateau
c) Powerful military
d) Ashoka converted to Buddhism
e) Trade included silk, cotton, elephants
f)
g) Ashoka’s death, economic problems, invaders

Gupta India
a) Chandra Gupta the Great
b) General geographic features
c) Decentralized and smaller than Mauryans
Golden Age of India
d) Hinduism dominant religion
Reinforced caste system
e) Math- pi and zero and decimal system->Arabic numerals
f) Rigid social structure, women were losing their rights, very patriarchal g) White Huns invaders, not enough taxes for military defenseDelhi Sultanate
a) Islamic invaders
b) Ganges River, Delhi
c) Political leader was the sultan
Tried to convert the Hindus
Religiously motivated destruction (temples and violence)
d) Taxed non-Muslims
e) Colleges founded, irrigation systems improved, mosques built Fusion of Indo-Muslim cultures
f) Women enjoyed rights that gradually were stripped away g) Mongol invasions,...
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