Midterm Review

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Midterm Review
Name: ______________________________ Date: ___________ Circle Period R1 R2 R3 S1 S2 S3 Chapter 1 – About Science
Vocabulary: Define each term.
Fact:
Hypothesis:
Law:
Theory:
Check Concepts:
1. Why is physics the most basic science?

2. Why is mathematics important to science?

3. Is a scientific fact something that is absolute and unchanging? Defend your answer.

Chapter 2 – Mechanical Equilibrium
Vocabulary: Define each term.
Force:
Net Force:
Vector:
Vector Quantity:
Scalar Quantity:
Mechanical Equilibrium:
Equilibrium Rule:
Support Force:
Resultant:
Check Concepts:
1. What is the difference between force and net force on an object?

2. What is the net force on a box that is being pulled to the right with a force of 40 N and pulled to the left with a force of 30 N?

3. What two quantities are necessary to determine a vector quantity?

4. How does a vector quantity differ from a scalar quantity?

5. Distinguish between static equilibrium and dynamic equilibrium.

6. According to the parallelogram rule for two vectors, what does the diagonal of a constructed parallelogram represent?

7. Why doesn’t the support force that acts on a book resting on a table cause the book to rise from the table?

8. The sketch shows a painter’s staging in mechanical equilibrium. The person in the middle weighs 250 N, and the tensions in both ropes are 200 N. What is the weight of the staging?

9. A staging that weighs 300 N supports two painters, one 250 N and the other 300 N. The reading in the left scale is 400 N. What is the reading in the right scale?

10. Two children push on a heavy crate that rests on a basement floor. One pushes horizontally with a force of 150 N and the other pushes in the same direction with a force of 180 N. The crate remains stationary. Show that the force of friction between the crate and the floor is 330 N.

Chapter 3 – Newton’s First Law of Motion - Interia
Vocabulary: Define each term.
friction :
inertia :
Newton’s first law:
law of inertia:
kilograms:
mass:
newton:
Check Concepts

1. What were the two classifications of motion, according to Aristotle?

2. According to Aristotle, what kinds of motion required no forces?

3. What simple way of interpreting astronomical observations did Copernicus advocate?

4. Who relied on experiment, Aristotle or Galileo?

5. How did Galileo discredit Aristotle’s assertion that a force is needed to keep objects moving?

6. Galileo let a ball roll down one incline and then up another. Compared with its initial height, how high did the ball roll up the second incline?

7. What is the tendency of an object at rest when no forces act on it?

8. What is the tendency of a moving object when no forces act on it?

9. What relationship does mass have with inertia?

Think and Rank…
10. The three pucks are sliding across ice at the noted speeds. Air resistance and ice friction are negligible.

a. Rank them, from greatest to least, by the force needed to keep them going.

b. Rank them, from greatest to least, by the force needed to stop them in the same time interval.

11. To pull a wagon across a lawn with constant velocity, you have to exert a steady force.

12. Does this fact contradict Newton’s first law which tells us that motion with constant velocity indicates no force?

13. When a junked car is crushed into a compact cube, does its mass change? Its volume? Its weight?

14. If an elephant were chasing you, its enormous mass would be very threatening. But if you zigzagged, the elephant’s mass would be to your advantage. Why?

15. When you compress a sponge, which quantity changes: mass, inertia, volume, or weight?

16. Which has more mass, a 2-kg fluffy pillow or a 3-kg small piece of iron? More volume? Why are your answers different?

Chapter 4 – Linear Motion
Vocabulary:...
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