Experimental Psychology: Concepts

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Non-associative learning (Single-event learning) is a change in behavior due to repeatedly exposure to a single event and does not involve learning of a relationship between multiple events. It is contrasted with associative learning (e.g. classical conditioning or operant conditioning) that involves learning the associations between different events.

Habituation is the decrease of a response to a repeated eliciting stimulus that is not due to sensory adaption or motor fatigue. The habituation process is a form of adaptive behavior that is classified as non-associative learning.

1-Repeated exposure: Repeated presentation of a stimulus will cause a decrease in response to that stimulus. 2- Frequency: Habituation is sensitive to the ISI (inter-stimulus-interval). Short ISIs are better at promoting short term habituation and long ISIs are better at promoting long-term habituation. 3- Stimulus Specificity: Habituation is stimulus specific. Habituation training on one stimulus does not generalize to other stimuli (Stimuli Discrimination) and any change in the stimulus is likely to result in the reappearance of the habituated response.  Coolidge effect: The Coolidge effect is the enhanced sexual arousal displayed by some species when presented with different sexual partners as opposed to the same sexual partner to whom it has habituated.

5- Intensity: Stimuli with high intensity will first produce sensitization but then get habituated more rapidly in comparison with low intensity stimuli. Highly aversive stimuli (e.g. pain or distress) don’t get habituated. 6- Not due to sensory adaption or motor fatigue: Sensory adaptation (or neural adaptation) occurs when an animal can no longer detect the stimulus as efficiently as when first presented and motor fatigue suggests that an animal is able to detect the stimulus but can no longer respond efficiently.

In long-term habituation, the response slowly decreases as a result of repeated stimulation and then slowly recovers in the absence of repeated stimulation. Long-term habituation tends to occur when the presentations of the stimulus are widely spaced (Long ISIs). Like a train going by your apartment each morning. Long-term habituated responses take a long time to be recovered.

In short-term habituation, the response quickly decreases as a result of repeated presentations of eliciting stimulus and recovers quickly in its absence. Short-term habituation tends to occur when presentations of the stimulus are narrowly spaced (Short ISIs). Like a child next door repeatedly bangs the drum. Short-term habituated responses take a short time to be recovered.

Dishabituation: The recovery of the responsiveness to a stimulus that has undergone habituation training due to recent occurrence of an extraneous stimulus. A single introduction of a different stimulus late in the habituation procedure when responding to the eliciting stimulus has declined can cause an increase in the habituated response. This increase in responding is temporary and is called "dishabituation" and always occurs to the original eliciting stimulus (not to the added stimulus). Effective factors on Dishabituation:    Change in habituated stimulus Change in the situational cues (The context in which habituation has happened). Introduction of an extraneous stimulus

The procedure in which an initially neutral stimulus (NS) is repeatedly paired with a stimulus (Unconditioned stimulus – US) that naturally elicits a response (unconditioned response – UR). As a result of paired presentations the association between the two stimuli is learned and the neutral stimulus (called conditioned stimulus after the pairing trails - CS) gradually comes to signal the presence of US and elicit a response that is similar to the UR (Conditioned Response – CR)....
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