The ABC’s of Sensation
3.1 How do sensations travel through the central nervous system, and why are some sensations ignored? * Sensation is the activation of receptors located in the eyes, ears, skin, nasal cavities, and tongue. * Sensory receptors are specialized forms of neurons that are activated by different stimuli such as light and sound. * A just noticeable difference is the point at which a stimulus is detectable half the time it is present. * Weber’s law of just noticeable differences states that the just noticeable difference between two stimuli is always a constant. * Absolute thresholds are the smallest amount of energy needed for conscious detection of a stimulus at least half the time it is present. * Subliminal stimuli are stimuli presented just below the level of conscious awareness and subliminal perception has been demonstrated in the laboratory. It has not been shown to be effective in advertising. * Habituation occurs when the brain ignores a constant stimulus. * Sensory adaption occurs when the sensory receptors stop responding to a constant stimulus. The Science of Seeing
3.2 What is light, and how does it travel through the various parts of the eye? * Brightness corresponds to the amplitude of light waves, whereas color corresponds to the length of the light waves. * Saturation is the psychological interception of wavelengths that are all the same (highly saturated) or varying (less saturated) * Light enters the eye and is focused through the cornea, passes through the aqueous humor, and then through the hole in the iris muscle called the pupil. * The lens also focuses the light on the retina, where it passes through ganglion and bipolar cells to stimulate the rods and cones. 3.3 How do the eyes see, and how do the eyes see different colors? * Rods detect changes in brightness but do not see color and function best in low levels of light. They do not respond to different colors and are found...
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