Duality Concept

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THE TWO FACTOR THEORY (Herzberg’s Hygiene and Motivational Factors) Frederick Herzberg (1923-2000) developed a list of factors that are closely based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, except it is more closely related to work: Hygiene or Dissatisfiers – Working conditions

Policies and administrative practices
Salary and Benefits
Supervision
Status
Job security
Fellow workers
Personal life
Motivators or Satisfiers - Recognition
Achievement
Advancement
Growth
Responsibility
Job challenge
Hygiene factors (dissatisfiers) must be present in the job before the motivators (satisfiers) can be used to stimulate that person. That is, you cannot use Motivators until all the Hygiene factors are met. Herzberg’s needs are specifically job related and reflect some of the distinct things that people want from their work as opposed to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs which reflect all the needs in a person’s life. Building on this model, Herzberg coined the term job enrichment to describe the process of redesigning work in order to build in Motivators.

McGregor’s Management Styles – Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas McGregor (1906-1964) developed a philosophical view of humankind with his Theory X and Theory Y. These are two opposing perceptions about how people view human behaviour at work and organisational life. Theory X

People have an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it whenever possible •People must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment in order to get them to achieve the organisational objectives •People prefer to be directed, do not want responsibility, and have little or no ambition •People seek security above all else

With Theory X assumptions, management’s role is to coerce and control employees. Theory Y
Work is as natural as play and rest
People will exercise self-direction if they are committed to the objectives •Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with...
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