1.0Analysis Using Motivation Theories1
1.3 Three-need Theory…………………………………………………………………………… 2 2.0Criticisms of the Management Functions3
3.0Main Problems Defined4
5.1Appendix 1: SWOT Analysis6
5.2 Appendix 2: Equity Theory Table……………………………………………………………..7
1.0Analysis Using Motivation Theories
According to Robbins, Bergman, Stagg and Coulter (2003) equity theory was developed by J.Stacey Adam. Campebell, Dunnette and Miller (1969) states the purpose of this theory is aim at employees’ assimilation from a job situation. Kaplan, Reckers and Reynolds (1986) notes these are outcomes, in relation to the efforts they put in, inputs, and then compare with others.
In the case, Lisa compares her input-outcome ratio with Leanne, which seems imbalance and unfair. Lisa feels jealous as Steve decided to go again her suggestion to hand over half of her workload to the youngest team member, Leanne. She also sees that Leanne became more dominant. Lisa was treated unfairly by two other members putting the blames at her who forced Steve to reprimand her. The distraught Lisa’s thinking was to give other members of the team who has more experience to take over some of her work rather than Leanne. In the end Lisa lodged a compensation claim for her nervous breakdown cased by Leanne.
Also stated by Robbins, Bergman, Stagg and Coulter (2003), employees’ motivation is influenced by rewards. Base on the above-mentioned, Steve should use the equity method in treatments of staff. Therefore, whenever an employee assess their own equity and perceive inequity, he or she will act to correct the situation rather than lack of motivation.
Please refer to 5.2 Appendix 2 for table showing equity theory.
2. Expectancy Theory
According to Montana and Charnov (2000), expectancy theory shows that rewards could motivate employees to increase their efforts. Taylor (1964) notes this encourages better performance leading to a positive outcome.
Steve applied the expectancy theory under his management. By doing this, he made an announcement that he will increase employees’ salary base on performance rating. Due to massive increase in training loads, Lisa was overworked and with projects behind schedule. Then Green (1992) states on of the believing is that employees believe if they perform well, they will get the reward. Leanne is an ambitious person that is why she offers help as she believes in good performance could get better outcome and reward. On the other hand, according to Montana and Charnov (2000), an employee can decide on which outcome they prefer. Due to immense pressure from overload and conflict with Leanne, Lisa has made a decision to take stress leave. This reduces the efforts Lisa requires to put into her work.
3. Three-need Theory
McClelland (as quoted by anonymous, 2008) states an employee’s motivation and effectiveness are influenced by the following:
Need for Achievement – McClelland (quoted by Pattanyak, 2006) notes motivation that influences employees to direct his or her behaviour towards attaining goals.
According to the achievement explained, Lisa is not motivated to challenge of working at a problem and do not accept any personal responsibilities for failure, rather leaving the actions and chance for Leanne to achieve the outcome.
Need for Affiliation – Courtney (2002) notes McClelland had suggested that people are motivated by different things. Also, base on the statement stated by Tosi, Mero and Rizzo (2000), McClelland’s theory on affiliation has a need for friendly relationships and have good interactions with others. These people can co-operate well in a team.
Referring to the explanation of affiliation, Lisa’s jealousy and conflict with Leanne had caused friction and resignation in the team. It shows there is a lack of...