Cross Cultural Psychology Notes

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Whose values count?

Culture: any group sharing values, beliefs, customs

“…isms”
ethnicism/racism
sexism
heterosexism (homophobia)
classism
ageism
prejudice against disabled
religious bigotry

Cultural Competence
Familiarity with other groups culture
Know thyself

People including students, therapist, profs, are humans first and

Three challenges to know about yourself
Humans rarely contemplate the origin, validity or meaning of their value Humans underestimate the arbitrariness of their values and beliefs Humans have an intense emotional need to have others share their values and worldviews

What drives us to surround ourselves with like minded others? Comfort
Self-affirmation
Self-validation

We also like to change others so they are more like us.

Two types of therapist
1. Those who want to help clients achieve their goals
2. Those who want clients to adopt and conform to therpists social norms *
* Thomas Szasz
“the myth of mental illness” (1961)
szasz thinks therapy is mostly “missionary work”
“….therapists are handmaidens of the status quo”

Three quick stories
Muslim Taxi drivers in Minnesota (2006)
Pharmacists refusing to fill prescription for morning after pill Psychologists referring gay clients to other therapists

In therapy, whoses values will prevail?

The challenge for therapists and people
To separate their personal beliefs from positions on matters that are based on evidence, logic, etc.

Confirmation bias
You already believe something is correct and you go out and try and find data that confirms that it is. You ignore all the data that disproves it.

Intelligent design: is a theory which says that the Universe is so complex that it must have been designed by a higher intelligent being. People who believe in intelligent design think that life did not evolve by natural selection. Most creationists use intelligent design as an explanation of how life was formed. Most scientists think intelligent design is not real science because it is not supported by any scientific evidence.[1] They think it is a religious idea which should not be called scientific.

Normality vs. Abnormality
*
* Your attitudes about “normality” are transient and arbitrary *
* Values
Universal (etic) vs. Culture specific (emic)

Problems in therapy and in non therapy contexts…
Most therapists and people think their culture specific beliefs are “universal”

* Latinos/as /Hispanics
Latinos > Latin American > Spanish and portugese are romance languages (originating form latin) Hispanic > hisania > latin version of the greek word referring to the Iberian penisula (present day spain)

U.S government used Hispanic in census starting in 1970 > for any Spanish speaking person.

Chrisopher Columbus (1451-1506)
First landed on islands in the bahamas (1492)

In reference to Mexico
1519 Heram Cortez arrives with 100s Spanish troops, 10+ cannons 10+ horses Columbus made 4 trips to the new world (last was in 1502)
Historians dispute how Cortez “conquered aztecs (white God theory, the “gun” theory”, the rallied Aztec rivals theory, the “germ” theory. The Indians only “domesticated animals were Llamas and buffalos Native Americans had multiple Gods.

Mexico Today…
Roughly
60% “Mestitzo” (part “indigenious” part European/Spanish) 30% “indigenous”
9% European/White
1% other

Just for comparative purposes
Costa Rica (%)
40 white
31 mestizos
17 ingidienous
3 black
1 Asian
El Salvador (%)
12 white
86 mestizos
1 indigenous
(1930 law forbade blacks and Asians from entering)

People of Mexican ancestry lived in southerwesrerm US prior to United States claiming those territories (from US- Mexico War 1846-1848)

Texas was claimed as no longer part of mexico in 1836

Mexico City
Today, most populated city in western hemispere (among top 20 largest cities in world) Los Angela’s/Easy LA is 2nd city with most people of...
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