Concepts of Management Study Guide Ch. 12,14,16

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Concepts of Management Last Exam!
Chapter 12 Motivating Employees
Motivation- the psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior. We all have needs some are filled some are not. Those that are not as managers/leaders we must fill them. Give out rewards 2 types

#1)Extrinsic- think “EX” for EXternal these are things such as raises, new company car, new bigger office etc. Receive from OTHERS for a particular task #2)Intrinsic- these are INternal such as job satisfaction, a sense of pride and/or accomplishment. Receive from the particular task itself Everyone is different figure out what works and use the motivation that works best for the INDIVIDUAL! Hierarchy of needs theory- goal is to move everyone up the hierarchy, but must start at base and fill each need before moving up hierarchy.

ERG Theory- assumes that there are 3 basic needs
Existence: for physiological & material well being
Relatedness: having substantial relationships with people we care about Growth: desire to grow as human beings to fullest potential
*****what is is important as with the ERG theory the manager/leader can fill the needs or MORE THAN ONE AT A TIME LIKE THE HIERARCHY OF NEEDS! Acquired Needs Theory: Achievement, Affiliation, Power

What is important here is that there needs to be a WELL BALANCED relationship between the 3 no one more than other you get people such as control freaks etc. You want BALANCE! 2 Factor Theory- there are two factors

#1) Dissatisfaction: aka Hygiene factors; EXTRINSIC(see 1st bullets of guide) #2) Satisfaction: INTRINSIC FACTORS
What is important is that there are two steps; Step 1: eliminate the dissatisfaction Step 2 then you can truly motivate someone with satisfaction factors. Equity Theory: this focuses on the perceptions that employees have on OTHER EMPLOYEES(i.e. John) not the boss or company other employees. What is important is that you must change their perception ex: “Am I fair to you? Yes is the company fair? Then who cares about John” Expectancy Theory- 3 parts

#1)Expectancy- do I have skills to complete job?
#2)Instrument- will there be a award if I do job?
#3)Valance- will I be happy with the reward?
Important here: must say YES to all 3 questions! AND customize the reward to fit the individual get used to hearing this! Goal Setting Theory-some people like goals so give them specific,challenging, attainable goals with rewards; some people hate goals so give them free reign just make sure they complete task. Job Design- 3 types

1. Simplification- very simple repetitive job example putting a nike check logo on shirts over and over in factory 2. Enlargement- some people get bored so give them more tasks example maybe not just put nike check, but also add color and put tag on shirt 3. Enrichment- let them think their way of doing each task tell them the goal or end result and let them think best way

Job Characteristics Model- 5 core job characteristic
1. VARIETY
2. TASK
3. IDENTITY
4. TASK SIGNIFICANCE
5. AUTONOMY
6. FEEDBACK
Important alter any all that are not up to the standard!
Reinforcement Theory-
* Positive- Do good get good reward
* Ex: bonus for good sales that month
* Negative- Do good withdrawal a bad thing
* Ex: no longer get hounded for report every day because you did such an amazing job * Punishment- Do bad get Bad thing to you
* Ex: show up late over and over doc pay
* Extinction- Do good but dont receive what you were told * the only bad reinforcement type makes good behavior extinct * Make sure that you reward/punish ASAP for example if dog pees on ground you dont yell at it a month later instead you punish it RIGHT AWAY! Also mix it up for different individuals! * Ex: tell someone that if they do good sales youll give bonus then never give bonus this is BADDDDD Some types of MONETARY incentives....

* Piece Rate- example is you get paid $5 a book you sell...
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