Computer Organization & Architecture Lecture #12 Organization and Architecture Computer Architecture Those attributes of the system that are visible to a programmer. Those attributes that have a direct impact on the execution of a program. • • • • Instruction sets Data representation – number of bits used to represent data Input/Output mechanisms Memory addressing techniques
Computer Organization The operational units and their interconnections that realize the architectural specifications. Those hardware attributes that are transparent to the programmer. • Control signals • Interfaces between the computer and peripherals • Memory technology Structure and Function A computer is a complex system; contemporary computers contain millions of electronic components. How, then, can one clearly describe a computer? The key is to recognize the hierarchical nature of most complex systems. A hierarchical system is a set of interrelated subsystems where each subsystem is a hierarchical structure. At each level, the system consists of a set of components and their interrelationships. At each level, a designer is concerned with structure and function: Structure – the way in which components relate to each other. Function – the operation of individual components as part of the structure.
Function The four basic functions of a computer are: • • • • Processing data Storing data Moving data between the computer and the outside world Control the operations above
Show below is a functional view of the computer.
• Above on the left is an example of transferring data from one peripheral or communications line to another. • Above on the right is an example of the computer as a storage device for the external environment either being written to or read from.
• Above on the left is an example of data being processed from storage. • Above on the right is an example of data being processed from the external environment.
Structure Shown below is a very simple depiction...
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