Chapter 6

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Chapter 6: Key Points
The following annotated chapter outline will help you review the key points covered in this chapter. Instructions: Review the outline to recall events and their relationships as presented in the chapter. Return to skim any sections that seem unfamiliar. As Augustus restored peace in 31 b.c.e., he established a constitutional monarchy, created the Roman Empire, and ushered in a period of peace and prosperity known as the Pax Romana that enabled Greco-Roman culture to continue spreading.

I. Augustus’s Settlement (31 b.c.e.–c.e. 14): Recognizing that the republic could not be restored after years of civil wars, Augustus opted to rebuild the constitution and government and to demobilize much of the army while still providing for defense. His success ushered in a period of peace and literary flowering. A.The Principate and the Restored Republic: Augustus modified republican forms of government into a constitutional monarchy and ruled as princeps. By holding numerous positions, including commander of the army, Augustus unofficially created the position of emperor. By making the army a permanent, professional force, he created Rome’s first standing army that was used not only for defense but to colonize—and Romanize—outlying areas. Loyal to Augustus, the army’s independence was problematic for later emperors. B.Roman Expansion into Northern and Western Europe: Augustus expanded the empire into northern and western Europe. He founded new towns, used military aggression, and above all, built roads. Soon trade began to develop and Roman culture spread, often blending with native customs. Relations with the barbarians, peoples who did not adopt Greco-Roman ways, presented challenges. When possible, the Romans kept peace, but they often had to use the army to repel hostile invasions. C.Literary Flowering and Social Changes: The peace ushered in with Augustus’s rule inspired a literary flowering known as the golden age of Latin literature....
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