Strayer World History Chapter 11

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Chapter 11: Chapter Outline

The following annotated chapter outline will help you review the major topics covered in this chapter.

Instructions: Review the outline to recall events and their relationships as presented in the chapter. Return to skim any sections that seem unfamiliar. I. Opening Vignette
A. By the start of the twenty-first century, Islam had acquired a significant presence in the United States . 1. more than 1,200 mosques
2. about 8 million Muslims (some 2 million are African Americans) B. The second half of the twentieth century saw the growing international influence of Islam. C. Islam had already been prominent in the world between 600 and 1600. 1. encompassed parts of Africa, Europe, Middle East, and Asia 2. enormously significant in world history

3. creation of a new and innovative civilization
4. was the largest and most influential of the third-wave civilizations 5. Islam’s reach generated major cultural encounters
D. In the year 2000, there were perhaps 1.2 billion Muslims in the world (22 percent of the world’s population).
II. The Birth of a New Religion
A. The Homeland of Islam
1. unlike most religious/cultural traditions, Islam emerged from a marginal region 2. Arabian Peninsula as home of nomadic Arabs (Bedouins) a. fiercely independent clans and tribes
b. variety of gods
3. Arabia also had sedentary, agricultural areas
4. Arabia lay on important East–West trade routes
a. Mecca became important as a trade center
b. the Kaaba was the most prominent religious shrine c. the Quraysh tribe controlled local trade and pilgrimage 5. Arabia was on the edge of the Byzantine and Sassanid empires a. so Arabs knew some practices of these empires

b. Judaism, Christianity, and Zoroastrianism had spread among Arabs B. The Messenger and the Message
1. the prophet of Islam was Muhammad Ibn Abdullah (570–632 c.e.) a. orphaned at a young age
b. became a prosperous merchant thanks to marriage to Khadija c. took to withdrawal and meditation
2. beginning of revelations from Allah in 610 c.e.
a. revelations recorded in the Quran
b. when heard in its original Arabic, believed to convey the presence of the divine 3. radically new teachings
a. monotheistic
b. Muhammad as “the seal of the prophets”
c. return to old, pure religion of Abraham
d. central tenet: submission to Allah (Muslim = “one who submits”) e. need to create a new society of social justice, equality, and care for others (the umma) 4. core message summarized in the Five Pillars of Islam

a. first pillar is simple profession: “There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of God.” b. prayer five times a day at prescribed times
c. generous giving to help the community and the needy d. fasting during the month of Ramadan
e. pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj)
5. jihad (“struggle”) is sometimes called the “sixth pillar” a. “greater jihad”: personal spiritual striving b. “lesser jihad”/“jihad of the sword”: armed struggle against unbelief and evil c. understanding of the concept has varied widely over time C. The Transformation of Arabia

1. Muhammad attracted a small following, aroused opposition from Meccan elites a. in 622, emigrated to Yathrib/Medina (the hijra) b. created Islamic community (umma) in Medina

c. broke definitively from Judaism
2. rapid expansion throughout Arabia
a. military successes led to alliances
b. large-scale conversion
c. consolidation of Islamic control throughout Arabia by time of Muhammad’s death in 632 3. fundamental differences between births of Islam and Christianity a. Islam did not grow...
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