Body Mechanics

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FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING R.L.E. MIDTERMS
BODY MECHANICS
AIM: “Comfort and safety of the patient.”
Objectives:
1. To assist in safely mobilizing client
2. To prevent fatigue and injury
3. To maintain good body posture and in performing mechanical procedures. SITTING INSTRUCTIONS:
a. Place feet flat on the floor
b. Popliteal space is 1 inch from the edge of the chair
c. Thighs 90° to the legs
d. Hips against back of the chair
e. Square the shoulders
f. Hold head erect
g. Avoid prolonged sitting (Maximum of 20-50 mins.)
h. Use soft support at the small of the back
i. Flex elbows and support forearms
LYING INSTRUCTIONS:
a. Rest at intervals
b. Place a firm board under the mattress
c. Avoid sleeping in a prone position
d. When lying on the side, place a pillow under the head and one between the legs, with legs flexed at the hips and knees e. When in supine position, use a pillow under the knees to decrease lordosis STANDING INSTRUCTIONS:

a. Feet flat on the floor, separated 6-8 inches with toes pointed straight b. Stomach should be flat
c. Position the shoulder back
d. Hold head erect and position arms at the sides
e. Avoid prolonged standing and walking especially in high-heeled shoes f. Use a footstool to prop one foot

WALKING INSTRUCTIONS:
a. Step forward and swing the opposing arm forward
b. Check that the foot lands heel first, then ball, then toes c. Step forward with the opposite leg and swing opposing arm forward STOOPING AND LIFTING INSTRUCTIONS:
a. Stand close to object being lifted
b. Place one foot in front of the other, creating a wide base of support c. Flex the knees, keep the back straight and lower self using the leg muscles d. Grasp the object close to you and rise in one continuous motion, keeping the back straight and using the leg muscles to straighten the knees PIVOTING: a technique in which the body in turned in a way that avoids twisting of the spine. a. Place one foot ahead of the other

b. Raise heels very slightly, and put the body weight on the balls of the feet c. Keeping the body aligned, turn 90° in desired direction

RULES FOR BODY MECHANICS:
1. Keep body in good alignment with a wide base of support 2. Use stronger, larger muscles in your shoulder, upper arms, thighs, and hips 3. Keep objects close to body when moving, lifting or carrying them 4. Avoid unnecessary bending and reaching

5. Face your work area
6. Push, slide or pull heavy objects rather than lifting
7. Widen base of support when pushing
8. Use both hands to lift, move or carry heavy objects
9. Turn your whole body when changing directions; move your feet in the direction of the turn instead of twisting them 10. Work with smooth and even movements; avoid sudden jerky movements 11. Get help from others when needed; avoid lifting or moving a person by yourself 12. Do not lift objects higher than your chest and more than 51 lbs.

PREVENTING BACK INJURIES:
a. Avoid lifting anything greater than 51 pounds. Use assistive equipment. b. Be aware of your posture and body mechanics
c. When standing for a long period of time, periodically move legs and hips, and flex one hip and knee and rest your foot on an object if possible d. When sitting, keep your knees slightly higher than your hips e. Use a firm mattress and soft pillow that provide good body support at natural body curvatures f. Exercise regularly and regulate weight

g. Avoid movements that cause pain or require spinal flexion with straight legs or spinal rotation h. When moving an object, distribute the weight between large muscles of the legs and arms, limiting the load to 15-25 lbs. held at elbow height i. Wear comfortable low-heeled shoes that provide good support

GUIDELINES TO ENSURE PROPER ALIGNMENT AND PROMOTE CLIENT COMFORT AND SAFETY 1. Make sure the mattress is firm...
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