What to cite?
* facts, findings, theories, ideas taken from a source published or unpublished * direct quotations (e.g. key words, phrases, passages, quoted verbatim (word-for-word) * paraphrases and summaries
* conclusions present using own word
* articles and studies used in the text
* some factual information
to give credit where credit is due because presenting the work of someone else as your own is plagiarism and carries horrific consequences.
How to cite?
* use the author-date system
* give page numbers for verbatim quotations
Basic Forms of Text Citation
1. One author not mentioned in the text.
* Put the name and date in parentheses following the reference material.
2. One author is mentioned in the text.
* Author’s name included in the text needs not be repeated in the parenthetical citation, only the date is given.
3. Two authors.
* Cite both names every time the reference occurs in your text. * When the names are in a parenthetical citation, use an ampersand (&) to separate them. * When the names are in the text, spell out and.
4. Three to five authors.
* Cite all authors in the first reference; only the last name of the first author followed by et al. in the next mention.
5. Six or more authors.
* Cite only the last name of the first author followed by et al.
6. Anonymous author.
* Use anonymous as the author’s name only if the work is signed anonymous. * Handle it like a single-author citation: (Anonymous, 2003)
7. Groups as authors (e.g. publications by organizations, corporations, government agencies, and associations). * Give the full name of the organization in the first reference followed by the abbreviation in brackets, and use only the abbreviation in subsequent references.
8. Unknown Date.
* Use the abbreviation n.d if no date for the source is given.
9. References to the Bible.
* Cite book, chapter and verses on your first citation only. * Cite also the version you used.
10. Personal communications.
* Cite letters, emails, interviews, telephone conversations, memos and other unpublished item only in the text, not in the reference list.
11. Secondary source. ( a work in which that author is quoted or paraphrased) * Cite both the author of the secondary source and the author of the primary source.
12. Electronic sources.
* Follow the same basic forms as for print sources.
* If the page numbers are not given, put the paragraph number using either the paragraph symbol ¶ or the abbreviation para. * If no paragraph number is available, use the number of the section and the number of the paragraph in that section.
1. Hanging Indent.
* Begin each entry on a line flush with the left margin. Indent second and subsequent lines one-half inch, or one tab space.
* Observe single-space between each line and double-spaces between each entry.
3. Order Entries.
* Arrange reference in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author listed in the publication.
The Printed Sources
1. Journal Articles
* Author, A.B., Author, B.C., & Author, C.D. (Year of publication). Title of article in sentence caps. Title of Publication in Heading Caps, Volume# (issue#), page# - page#. * If more than six authors, omit the ampersand and place et al. after the last author’s initials.
* Monographs issued as parts of a series, even though they might look like books or pamphlets, are treated as periodicals.
3. Magazines Article
4. Books with One Author
* In the reference list entry, use sentence caps for university publishers. If the...
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