Apa Method

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TEXT CITATION

What to cite?

* facts, findings, theories, ideas taken from a source published or unpublished * direct quotations (e.g. key words, phrases, passages, quoted verbatim (word-for-word) * paraphrases and summaries

* conclusions present using own word
* articles and studies used in the text
* some factual information

Why cite?

to give credit where credit is due because presenting the work of someone else as your own is plagiarism and carries horrific consequences.

How to cite?

* use the author-date system
* give page numbers for verbatim quotations

Basic Forms of Text Citation

1. One author not mentioned in the text.
* Put the name and date in parentheses following the reference material.

2. One author is mentioned in the text.
* Author’s name included in the text needs not be repeated in the parenthetical citation, only the date is given.

3. Two authors.
* Cite both names every time the reference occurs in your text. * When the names are in a parenthetical citation, use an ampersand (&) to separate them. * When the names are in the text, spell out and.

4. Three to five authors.
* Cite all authors in the first reference; only the last name of the first author followed by et al. in the next mention.

5. Six or more authors.
* Cite only the last name of the first author followed by et al.

6. Anonymous author.
* Use anonymous as the author’s name only if the work is signed anonymous. * Handle it like a single-author citation: (Anonymous, 2003)

7. Groups as authors (e.g. publications by organizations, corporations, government agencies, and associations). * Give the full name of the organization in the first reference followed by the abbreviation in brackets, and use only the abbreviation in subsequent references.

8. Unknown Date.
* Use the abbreviation n.d if no date for the source is given.

9. References to the Bible.
* Cite book, chapter and verses on your first citation only. * Cite also the version you used.

10. Personal communications.
* Cite letters, emails, interviews, telephone conversations, memos and other unpublished item only in the text, not in the reference list.

11. Secondary source. ( a work in which that author is quoted or paraphrased) * Cite both the author of the secondary source and the author of the primary source.

12. Electronic sources.
* Follow the same basic forms as for print sources.
* If the page numbers are not given, put the paragraph number using either the paragraph symbol ¶ or the abbreviation para. * If no paragraph number is available, use the number of the section and the number of the paragraph in that section.

REFERENCE CITATION

Basic Format

1. Hanging Indent.
* Begin each entry on a line flush with the left margin. Indent second and subsequent lines one-half inch, or one tab space.

2. Spacing.
* Observe single-space between each line and double-spaces between each entry.

3. Order Entries.
* Arrange reference in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author listed in the publication.

The Printed Sources

1. Journal Articles
* Author, A.B., Author, B.C., & Author, C.D. (Year of publication). Title of article in sentence caps. Title of Publication in Heading Caps, Volume# (issue#), page# - page#. * If more than six authors, omit the ampersand and place et al. after the last author’s initials.

2. Monographs
* Monographs issued as parts of a series, even though they might look like books or pamphlets, are treated as periodicals.

3. Magazines Article
* Monthly
* Weekly

4. Books with One Author
* In the reference list entry, use sentence caps for university publishers. If the...
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