"General Relativity" Essays and Research Papers

General Relativity

The History of Classical Gravitational Theory and General Relativity In the beginning scientists and religious men of their era tried to explain the universe both biblically and scientifically. One of the foremost Greek scientists was Aristotle; taught by Plato, that the circle and sphere are the two most perfect shapes in a 2 and 3 dimensional universe, Aristotelian system placed Earth at the center of the universe; and all other heavenly bodies revolved around the earth in crystalline...

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General Relativity

General relativity is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915. According to general relativity, the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from their warping of space and time. By the beginning of the 20th century, Newton's law of universal gravitation had been accepted for more than two hundred years as a valid description of the gravitational force between masses. In Newton's model, gravity is the result of an attractive force between...

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Tok Essay: "Only Seeing General Patterns Can Give Us Knowledge. Only Seeing Particular Examples Can Give Us Understanding." to What Extent Do You Agree with These Assertions?

“Only seeing general patterns can give us knowledge. Only seeing particular examples can give us understanding.” To what extent do you agree with these assertions? In 2007, approximately 1.58 million scientific research papers were published, far more than one could possibly read in a lifetime. However, when I visited CERN last year, I was told that all of our present understanding of physics could be summarised in a few equations: General Relativity, describing gravity; and the Standard Model...

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Hans Albert Einstein, was born in Berne, Switzerland. 1905 His Special Theory of Relativity is born and he applies his theory to mass and energy and formulates the famous equation e=mc2. Einstein has four papers published in the Annalen der Physik, the leading German physics journal. 1905 is known as Einstein's "Wonderful Year". 1907 Einstein begins applying the laws of gravity to his Special Theory of Relativity. 1908 Albert Einstein becomes a privatdozent (an associate professorship) at the...

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of the people who don't do anything about it.” “The World As I See It” Who was Albert Einstein? While most do not understand his work, everyone knows that Einstein’s impact on the world is astonishing. Many people have heard of his general theory of relativity, but few know about the intriguing life that led Einstein to discover what some have called the greatest single achievement of human thought. Einstein’s life, which led to his discoveries and papers, led to an amazing legacy which impacted...

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History of Motion

did with Copernicus and Galileo, it was recognised as great achievement, and this scientific progression led to many discoveries that would contribute to the world we live in today. Albert Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity Albert Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity, published in 1905, is a theory of measurement that only applies to uniform velocities. According to his theory, Einstein states that all motion is relative and every concept involving space and time are also relative, therefore...

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The ‘Hole’ Argument Against Substantivalism

Argument Against Substantivalism The ‘hole’ argument against substantivalism is a great argument created by Albert Einstein out of desperation when his general theory of relativity ran into obstacles. The ‘hole’ argument says that if the general theory of relativity is true and substantivalism is true, then for any model of the general theory of relativity representing a physically possible universe, there is a hole diffeomorphism of that model which represents a physically possible universe that is observationally...

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General Physics Q&A's

 Reading Assignment #1: Vector Analysis Textbook Sections that I read: 2.1-3 Important Concepts: An interaction between two objects can be described and measured in terms of two forces. The force is a push or either a pull. There are two types of forces. #1 is a long range force and this force does not require the objects involved to be touching each other. An example of this is when you are holding a magnet away from a refrigerator and you are able to feel the magnetic pull. #2 is a contact...

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INC1 chapter 1, 2 & 3 summaries

be observed if the hypothesis is correct. The consequences should be absent if the hypothesis is not correct. 5. Test predictions Do experiments to see if the consequences you predicted are present. 6. Draw a conclusion Formulate the simplest general rule that organizes the hypothesis, predicted effects, and experimental findings. But scientifically speaking, a theory is a synthesis of facts and welltested hypotheses. Science is a system by which we discover and record physical phenomena...

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A Brief History of Stephen Hawking

held by Isaac Barrow, and then in 1669 by Isaac Newton. Stephen Hawking has worked on the basic laws which govern the universe. He showed that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity implied space and time would have a beginning in the Big Bang and an end in black holes. These results indicated it was necessary to unify General Relativity with Quantum Theory. One consequence of such a unification that he discovered was that black holes should not be completely black, but should emit radiation...

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A Brief History of Time - 1

these small scale objects that we cannot observe that matter most. Einstein’s general theory of relativity involves everything on a massive scale and couldn’t therefore determine the universe prior to the big bang. This being that it was proven that the big bang had to start with a singularity, this meaning that the universe was so infinitesimally small and compact that we couldn’t possibly use the general theory of relativity to describe our universe during the big bang singularity. This brought a need...

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tutorial groups for individual discussions each week (“Questions of the Week”) -Projects: short presentation in your discussion group Welcome to Astronomy/Origins 2B03 “The Big Questions” Your instructor: Dr. Christine Wilson – astrophysics, relativity, cosmology - Keep an individual journal on the Avenue to learn site -Respond with your thoughts and questions (through the Avenue site) to the weekly topics Jeremy Webb (Head TA) Special guest lecturers & a team of excellent TAs! Your...

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Chris Hall Miss Dennis English 1301.099 November 9, 2013 Albert Einstein Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany in 1879. His notable contributions included helping to develop the special and general theories of relativity. In 1921, he won the Nobel Prize for physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect. Einstein is generally considered the most influential physicist of the 20th century. He died on April 18, 1955, in Princeton, New Jersey. In 1905 Einstein published...

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Gravitational Force

250 years. It, however, shows its shortcomings when explaining the unusual orbit of Mercury around the Sun. It breaks down when the gravitational forces get very strong or involving bodies moving at speeds near that of light. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity of 1915, which has overcome this limitations of Newton's Law, was able to demonstrate a better theory of gravitation. Home Gravitational potential energy ...

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String Theory

question? Well, first we must discuss the major problem that loomed with developing such a theory. To correlate all things in the universe, one must first realize the two pillars of modern physics. First is Einstein’s general relativity and then the concept of quantum mechanics. Relativity provides a framework for understanding the universe at a large scale, we are talking about stars, galaxies and even larger objects(galaxy clusters, black holes even). Quantum mechanics does the opposite, provides a...

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Time Travel and How Black Holes Make It Possible

possible to travel through time without violating Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. By going into orbit around a black hole, the black hole’s gravitational pull would slow down time; however black holes are so far away and it is so dangerous to try to orbit one that it makes the idea of using it for time travel highly improbable and foolhardy. Einstein-Rosen Bridges are theoretical solutions to Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity that would provide us with a shortcut to travel through space...

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Albert Einstein - a Condensed Biography

America – 3 years later, Elsa would die of heart and kidney problems. 1905 was an immensely important year in the life of Einstein, and indeed, in the life of the whole world – in 1905, Einstein published a paper detailing his Special Theory of Relativity. In it, he establishes the law of mass energy equivalence, through the famous formula which we all have undoubtedly heard – E=mc². What do these three simple letters mean? Energy is equal to mass times the speed of light squared. With this paper...

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Black Holes

introduced his concept of general relativity. This theory enabled the initial good explanations of black holes to be created. One year later Karl Schwarzschild came up with the initial mathematical description. Currently it is referred as Schwarzschild black hole. It explains a black hole that is completely spherical and does not rotate. Karl Schwarzschild is recognized as a bright astronomer who discovered black holes concept. In 1916, Karl applied Einstein's general relativity's theory. He started...

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My Boring Life

Colombia. Similarly, during the summer following eleventh grade, I was one of ninety students from New Jersey selected to attend the Governor's School in the Sciences at Drew University. At Drew, I took courses in molecular orbital theory, special relativity, cognitive psychology, and I participated in an astrophysics research project. For my independent research project, I used a telescope to find the angular velocity of Pluto. With the angular velocity determined, I used Einstein's field equations...

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Biggest Mysteries of Physics

recorded to have taken under 3 milliseconds, 60 nanoseconds faster than light would have taken. Needless to say, there are many who have their doubts. Proving faster-than-light travel exists would undermine Albert Einstein's 1905 theory of special relativity, which states that the speed of light (186,282 miles per second, or 671 million miles per hour) is a cosmic constant and that nothing can travel faster than this limit — a cornerstone of our understanding of the universe. If FTL travel is in fact...

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The Cosmic Engine Research

own Milky Way showed that they were systematically moving away from us with a speed that was proportional to their distance from us. The more distant the galaxy, the faster it was receding from us. The universe was expanding after all, just as General Relativity originally predicted! Hubble observed that the light from a given galaxy was shifted further toward the red end of the light spectrum the further that galaxy was from our galaxy. The specific form of Hubble's expansion law is important: the...

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Stephen Hawking

limitations and get a fourth class degree. To work hard to get a better class of degree was regarded as the mark of a grey man - the worst epithet in the Oxford vocabulary." After graduating from Oxford, Hawking went to Cambridge and studied general relativity and Cosmology. This was a difficult subject, especially for a person who had very little education in mathematics. Cosmology was generally related to theories on how the universe started and black holes. There had been no one working in those...

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Black Holes

call those mysterious masses black holes. But what are they? How can one really define an object as complicated and abstract as a black hole? To understand the concept behind a black hole one must first understand the notion of Einstein's general Theory of Relativity and the way gravity works. If an object were to be shot towards the sky from a cannon, let's say, and it was shot just hard enough to make it escape earth's gravity, that would be called the escape velocity. Escape velocity depends on...

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Back holes

another parallel universe, or another place in our own universe, a white hole would push everything away from its hole. These white holes would have negative gravity, and admit light. These holes are mathematical solutions to the equations of general relativity. This doesn’t necessarily mean that they exist in nature. There is no way of actually producing a white hole. This white hole violates the second law of thermodynamics. This ordered system would become more disorganized with time, so a system...

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Free fall (physics)

In Newtonian physics, free fall is any motion of a body where its weight is the only force acting upon it. In the context of general relativity, where gravitation is reduced to a space-time curvature, a body in free fall has no force acting on it and it moves along a geodesic. The present article only concerns itself with free fall in the Newtonian domain. An object in the technical sense of free fall may not necessarily be falling down in the usual sense of the term. An object moving upwards...

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From the Large Scale Universe to the Milky Way

Bang theory was, “Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (1916) is a generalization of Newton’s Law of Gravity. Gravity is described as a distortion of space and time. The Cosmological Principle is an assumption that matter in the universe is uniformly distributed when averaging over large-scales, and that the distribution of matter is homogeneous and isotropic. This laid the foundation of the Big Bang Model, which was “Big Bang Theory = General Theory of Relativity + Cosmological Principle” (Welser-Sherrill...

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Into a Black Hole

black hole. His equations suggest such wormholes are viable alternatives to the "space-time singularities" that Albert Einstein predicted to be at the centre of black holes. DIFFERENT THEORIES PROPOSED: According to Einstein's equations for general relativity, singularities are created whenever matter in a given region gets too dense, as would happen at the ultra dense heart of a black hole. Einstein's theory suggests singularities take up no space, are infinitely dense, and are infinitely hot—a...

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Dark Energy

we now know that the accelerated expansion of the universe did not start until sometime in the last 10 billion years," Caldwell says. Cosmologists are now scrambling to determine what exactly dark energy is. In 1917 Einstein amended his General Theory of Relativity with a cosmological constant, which, if the value was right, would allow the universe to exist in a perfectly balanced, static state. Although history's most famous physicist would later call the addition of this constant his "greatest...

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Albert Einstein. Biography Essay

Unfortunately, war broke out. Einstein separated from his family leaving them behind and moving towards the future. Albert supported the pacifist group when World War One approached. After a year of thought Albert, at last, finished his theory of relativity: Einstein reached another understanding of gravity. At the same time Einstein craved for peace to return. Germany was at their downfall and Albert was engaged in politics pushing for a new progressive party. In about 1919, things were looking...

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Sagittarius a*

theory of relativity, scientists were able to find out that when so much matter is concentrated in a small region, gravitational forces are so strong and space so extremely warped that light is no longer just being bent, but trapped inside the object (see image on the left). Although the concept of black holes is relatively old, the findings and research on them are quite new. After being ignored for almost a century, the idea of black holes was again being explored thanks to Einstein’s general theory...

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Summary of the Universe in a Nutshell

Description: This chapter chronicles the works of Albert Einstein, predominantly his dual theories of Special Relativity and General Relativity. Special Relativity involves time, which was established as subjective and relative to the object in question. He also worked to establish the consistency of the speed of light as a daunting measure which cannot be surpassed (E=MC2). His General Theory of Relativity pushed forth the idea that space and time were not independent, but rather connected in some fabric...

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physis, i.e. "nature"[1][2][3][4][5]) is a part of natural philosophy and a natural science that involves the study of matter[6] and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force.[7] More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.[8][9][10] Physics is the field of science that studies the physical world. From the large (galaxies, planets, etc) to the small (how proteins fold, atoms, etc) physics...

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Statement of Purpose

fundamental research pattern, Data Analysis and Simulation, I proposed a seminar in University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) where a series of presentations prepared me an overview of research frontier. All these experience made up a general sketch of Astrophysics research conducted by Simulation and Data Analysis. And the study seems far from fanciful to imagine impresses me deeply the greatness of humanity. Though we are physically limited, our curiosity & pursuit is no boundaries....

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The Major Similarities and Differencea Between Islam and Science

evolutionists believe that the changes in the genetic structure of living things over a long period of time leads to the creation of different species 4. This is the cornerstone of the evolutionary debate. Mutation is said to have occurred as the general atmosphere of the earth changed and the living things had to adapt to the new conditions of life. So this means that as the earth’s atmosphere became less volatile and more stable living things began to evolve. However it must be noted that this process...

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Albert Einstien

studies of evaluating movement which was necessary in Einstein’s theory of relativity. Einstein has written and published work that has been inspirational to many. But none of his work is as famous as the E=mc2 equation. This equation is merely a component of the theory of relativity. It states that energy is equaled to mass multiplied by the constant speed of light which is 299,762,458 meters per second. The theory of relativity states that rest and motion are relative to each other the constant speed...

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The Importance of Conformity

laws of the nature. The laws of nature can be the physical laws. Scientists and philosophers who study and follow the laws of the nature flourish, while those who devote their effort to challenge the law of nature result little. Einstein’s General Relativity was not accepted by the world until Arthur Stanley Eddington’s observation on solar ellipse supported its prediction. Scientific theory is valued only if it is useful to predict the world governed by the laws of nature. In other words, science...

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Marketing I

Motion and the Law of Gravitation. He was appointed warden of the Mint He was appointed the master of the Mint, a position which he held until his death. Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist. He developed the general theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics. He is best known for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc². ACCOMPLISHMENT: Einstein gave the explanation for calculation of Avogadro's number and the size of molecules. Einstein was...

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The Universe

forces of all the objects in the universe should have caused the entire universe to collapse on itself. This clearly had not happened, and so astronomers were presented with a paradox. When Einstein developed his theory of gravity in the General Theory of Relativity, he thought he ran into the same problem that Newton did: his equations said that the universe should be either expanding or collapsing, yet he assumed that the universe was static. His original solution contained a constant term, called...

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Life Cycle of a Star (Gcse Level)

relativistic redshift formula (and its classical approximation) can be used to calculate the redshift of a nearby object when spacetime is flat. However, many cases such as black holes and Big Bang cosmology require that redshifts be calculated using general relativity.[3] Special relativistic, gravitational, and cosmological redshifts can be understood under the umbrella of frame transformation laws. There exist other physical processes that can lead to a shift in the frequency of electromagnetic radiation...

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Four Pillars of Big Bang Theory

alternative models existed. It will become evident that the Big Bang theory lays down the framework for the evolution of the universe. One of the most significant observations is that the universe is expanding. When Einstein applied his theory of general relativity, he found that it predicted an expanding or contracting universe. (Expanding universe, n.d.) This caused Einstein to add a cosmological constant to his equations that made his calculations consistent with a static universe. (Expanding universe...

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Sample Concept Paper

which is a matter of chance as far as the photon’s path is concerned (42-43). He takes his reader back to the beginning of his discussion by pointing to the 100 years between Newton’s proposing his theory of gravity and Einstein’s theory of general relativity, which explained gravity in accord with Newton’s original ideas. And then Wheeler makes a very unusual move: he transports the reader to a garden in which Plato and Aristotle conversed more than three millennia ago. He wonders if someday soon...

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Newtons Second Law

statements of the second law are valid only for constant-mass systems, since any mass that is gained or lost by the system will cause a change in momentum that is not the result of an external law requires modification if the effects of special relativity are to be taken into account, as it cannot be said that momentum is the product of inertial mass and velocity. The equation for T, the tension of the cable in the experiment are given by, T = mg-ma T = Ma + µMg The acceleration of an object...

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Calculating for Acceleration Due to Gravity with a Picket Fence in Free Fall

of your title and you have started with something familiar. If your reader has read this far, then you have gained his confidence that you know what you are talking about and he can relate with it. Now you go to the next step by stating your general problem: how to measure the acceleration of your car. He expects you give him something familiar again, so you say, “One way to measure the acceleration of a car is to get the difference between the readings in the speedometer between two times and...

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Phys 1160 Essay

are non-luminous objects made of baryonic matter, and comprise of halos around galaxies. Examples of MACHOs are brown dwarfs and black holes. Brown dwarfs when created do not have sufficient mass for gravity to be luminous. Einstein’s General Theory of relativity proposed black holes are simply a large amount of matter, which result in the matter collapsing under gravity. Due to the nature of the black hole anything which comes near the black hole, including light, cannot escape the gravitational...

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Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

was the fact that none of them proposed the origin of gravity. Newton's law always proved to be true in the common world but did not explain the source of the force (Eddington 95). Albert Einstein proposed his Theory of Gravity in his General Theory of Relativity. In this he said that space was a three dimensional plane and that masses curved this plane in one way or another (Eddington 95). Thus a massive object would cause a large "hole" and smaller objects would "orbit" it. It is interesting...

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Stephen Hawking

Gravity. This topic is listed under the "Stephen Hawking" Wikipedia entry as one of Hawking's primary fields of research. Quantum Gravity is defined by Christopher Wanjek in Astronomy Today as, "...the long-sought missing link between Einstein's General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics, the two incongruous pillars of modern physics." Hawking expended large amounts of effort attempting to come up with a unified theory that would accurately marry the two predominating theories of our time. After extensive...

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String Theory

This is in contrast to ordinary quantum field theory, which predicts point particles that emit and absorb each other. String theory is a candidate for a Theory of Everything." String theory would solve the long fight between Einstein's theory of relativity and Quantum Physics. String theory proclaims that everything in our universe, from stars and suns to apples and atoms, is made up of incredibly small particles called strings. Strings are so small, that if an atom were the size of our solar system...

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Analysis of Crossing Brooklyn Fairy Walt Whitman

and our very nature unite us across space and time – that, like the scene before the speaker, we exist simultaneously both and in and out of time and so achieve unity with all. Central to “Crossing Brooklyn Ferry” and to Whitman’s worldview in general is human individuality. One’s unique, physical identity is the lens through which he or she experiences life – it is an anchor to reality that keeps one firmly within the flow of time. Throughout the poem, the speaker is keenly of this individuality...

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PK 1 Experimental Errors and Uncertainty RPT

Plot a graph <y> versus t2 (plot t2 on the abscissa, i.e., x-axis). The equation of motion for an object in free fall starting from rest is y = ½ gt2, where g is the acceleration due to gravity. This is the equation of a parabola, which has the general form y = ax2.  Results 3: Task 4. Determine the slope of the line and compute an experimental value of g from the slope value. Remember, the slope of this graph represents ½ g.  Results 4: Task 5. Compute the percent error of the experimental value...

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Doppler Effect (Simplified)

flying through space and away from the point of explosion, which persists even today! This is what termed as ‘Expanding Universe’. Wonder, what proves scientists that the universe is expanding? Understanding Doppler Effect and Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, one would say that, a wave released by a body speeding away from a point will tend to have longer waves, if you look at the wave from that very point. The farther it moves away, the longer the waves appear, and vice versa! Try observing the fourth...

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Dark Matter, Dark Energy

universal expansion. The idea also highlighted the reality that there is much we do not understand about the Universe. Dark energy is a force that repulses gravity, which cannot exist according to Newtonian theories on gravity, but does exist in general relativity theories (Caldwell &amp; Kamionkowski, 2009). Caldwell and Kamionowski go on to explain that the gravitational field of a negative-pressure fluid, caused by thermal molecular motions, is repulsive. The fluid is dark energy. Other theories...

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All I Know Is That I Know Nothing

form of photons. He was one of the first physicists to acknowledge that particles could only obtain certain discrete energies. This radically went against Newton’s laws that were completely set in stone. Albert Einstein came up with the theory of relativity which placed all particles to have a speed limit at the speed of light. He also proposed that when going to near speed of light speed all of Newton’s laws of physics break down. Einstein was also able to explain Newton claimed force of gravity by...

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A Brief History of Time Summary

which he first presents the ideas of universal gravitation and his famous three laws of motion. Within the second chapter Hawking delves into the topic of space and time focusing upon the main points of absolute rest and position, the theory of relativity, as well as light. With Newton’s laws of gravity, it was impossible for objects to be at absolute rest when moving at speeds close to the speed of light. In 1676, Ole Christensen Roemer discovered the speed of light; however, it was calculated at...

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Black Holes

density, this is also known as singularity, a collapsed core (Smith, H. R.). Black holes are also able to merge with other black holes to form a super massive black hole, this is present in the centres of most galaxies (Wikipedia). Source: Cambridge Relativity The process at which black holes are made simply only involve the cores of stars. The size of the core of the star is essential in determining whether a dying star will form into a black hole, a white dwarf or a neutron star. Cores of stars approximately...

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RocheWorld Space Physics

board so the crew can escape the free-fall environment from time to time to get important work done easier, but I’m guessing Velcro is much cheaper than a centrifugal force machine for the ship. Overall, Forward does a really good job explaining general space physics and how these scenarios are accurate to real life without interfering too much with the story. The Mercury station’s “orbit” using the Sun to counteract the pull of Mercury is quite an interesting and brilliant idea that seems like a...

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Strange Behavior Explained by Albert Einstein

because it does not exist. I only made this all up. That is Strange Filipino Behaviors Explained by Albert Einstein. Among his famous and remembered subject matter involves the use of our Imagination, accounting, curiosity, innovation, infinity and relativity. And oh boy, we, the Filipinos internalized, embraced and made it our own. If you don't understand and you don't believe what I am telling you, then I will let the facts of our everyday lives make it for you. We always thought of Einstein as...

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Time Travel Theory Informative for Speech

different points in time, in a behavior corresponding to moving between different points in space. Time travel could deal with moving forward in a timeline or backward in a timeline. Jane Marshall, a leading physicist today said “Einstein's theory of relativity is a theory of space and time, and should be no surprise that black holes offer, in concept, a way to travel through space and time” (All Sands).  Even some of the earliest literature works of time travel dates back to 700 BC with the story of Raviata...

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The Creation of the Universe

write it off as the act of God. It was his divine will that moved the planets together in such a way as to be able to support life. Or you could ask the more worldly scientist who would explain to you about the Law of Probability, the Theory of Relativity, and show you lengthy mathematical equations dealing with Quantum and Theoretical Physics. In the end, you would likely have a headache of immense size, but come away with perhaps a better understanding of how the order of events, and the laws...

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the optimal travel speed would be faster than light travel or FTL. Although the speed of light is the ultimate limitation in physics, several schemes for breaking this limit have been proposed. One idea would be traveling through a wormhole. General relativity typically supports the idea that space-time can be bunched up and when this happens, you basically get a shortcut to another part of space-time. Of course if this concept did indeed work, a slight flaw in the plan is that the end that you enter...

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Experimental Errors And Uncertainty Brett Spencer

with the dependent variables, results much like the collected data would reappear. C. Interpretation of Results Evidentially, this experiment sheds light on Newton’s theory of gravitational pull along with complimenting Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. Because gravity does not act as a force, the uneven distribution of mass and energy results in a pull towards the ground, gaining momentum until forced otherwise. This clearly shows the relative frame of reference that relates both time and space...

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