The History of Classical Gravitational Theory and *General*** Relativity**
In the beginning scientists and religious men of their era tried to explain the universe both biblically and scientifically. One of the foremost Greek scientists was Aristotle; taught by Plato, that the circle and sphere are the two most perfect shapes in a 2 and 3 dimensional universe, Aristotelian system placed Earth at the center of the universe; and all other heavenly bodies revolved around the earth in crystalline...

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*General*** relativity** is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915. According to

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“Only seeing ** general** patterns can give us knowledge. Only seeing particular examples can give us understanding.” To what extent do you agree with these assertions?
In 2007, approximately 1.58 million scientific research papers were published, far more than one could possibly read in a lifetime. However, when I visited CERN last year, I was told that all of our present understanding of physics could be summarised in a few equations:

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Hans Albert Einstein, was born in Berne, Switzerland.
1905 His Special Theory of ** Relativity** is born and he applies his theory to mass and energy and formulates the famous equation e=mc2. Einstein has four papers published in the Annalen der Physik, the leading German physics journal. 1905 is known as Einstein's "Wonderful Year".
1907 Einstein begins applying the laws of gravity to his Special Theory of

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of the people who don't do anything about it.”
“The World As I See It”
Who was Albert Einstein? While most do not understand his work,
everyone knows that Einstein’s impact on the world is astonishing. Many people
have heard of his ** general** theory of

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did with Copernicus and Galileo, it was recognised as great achievement, and this scientific progression led to many discoveries that would contribute to the world we live in today.
Albert Einstein’s Theory of Special ** Relativity**
Albert Einstein’s Theory of Special

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Argument Against Substantivalism
The ‘hole’ argument against substantivalism is a great argument created by Albert Einstein out of desperation when his ** general** theory of

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Open Document Reading Assignment #1: Vector Analysis Textbook Sections that I read: 2.1-3 Important Concepts: An interaction between two objects can be described and measured in terms of two forces. The force is a push or either a pull. There are two types of forces. #1 is a long range force and this force does not require the objects involved to be touching each other. An example of this is when you are holding a magnet away from a refrigerator and you are able to feel the magnetic pull. #2 is a contact...

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be observed if the hypothesis is correct.
The consequences should be absent if the hypothesis is not correct.
5. Test predictions Do experiments to see if the consequences you predicted
are present.
6. Draw a conclusion Formulate the simplest ** general** rule that organizes the
hypothesis, predicted effects, and experimental findings.
But scientifically speaking, a theory is a synthesis of facts and welltested
hypotheses.
Science is a system by which we discover and record physical phenomena...

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held by Isaac Barrow, and then in 1669 by Isaac Newton.
Stephen Hawking has worked on the basic laws which govern the universe. He showed that Einstein's ** General** Theory of

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these small scale objects that we cannot observe that matter most. Einstein’s ** general** theory of

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tutorial groups for individual discussions each
week (“Questions of the Week”)
-Projects: short presentation in your discussion group
Welcome to Astronomy/Origins 2B03
“The Big Questions”
Your instructor:
Dr. Christine Wilson – astrophysics, ** relativity**, cosmology
- Keep an individual journal on the Avenue to learn site
-Respond with your thoughts and questions (through the
Avenue site) to the weekly topics
Jeremy Webb (Head TA)
Special guest lecturers & a team of excellent TAs!
Your...

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Chris Hall
Miss Dennis
English 1301.099
November 9, 2013
Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany in 1879. His notable contributions included helping to develop the special and ** general** theories of

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250 years.
It, however, shows its shortcomings
when explaining the unusual orbit of
Mercury around the Sun. It breaks
down when the gravitational forces
get very strong or involving bodies
moving at speeds near that of light.
Einstein's ** General** Theory of

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question?
Well, first we must discuss the major problem that loomed with developing such a theory. To correlate all things in the universe, one must first realize the two pillars of modern physics. First is Einstein’s *general*** relativity** and then the concept of quantum mechanics.

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possible to travel through time without violating Einstein’s ** General** Theory of

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America – 3 years later, Elsa would die of heart and kidney problems.
1905 was an immensely important year in the life of Einstein, and indeed, in the life of the whole world – in 1905, Einstein published a paper detailing his Special Theory of ** Relativity**. In it, he establishes the law of mass energy equivalence, through the famous formula which we all have undoubtedly heard – E=mc². What do these three simple letters mean? Energy is equal to mass times the speed of light squared. With this paper...

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introduced his concept of *general*** relativity**. This theory enabled the initial good explanations of black holes to be created. One year later Karl Schwarzschild came up with the initial mathematical description. Currently it is referred as Schwarzschild black hole. It explains a black hole that is completely spherical and does not rotate.
Karl Schwarzschild is recognized as a bright astronomer who discovered black holes concept. In 1916, Karl applied Einstein's

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Colombia. Similarly, during the summer following eleventh grade, I was one of ninety students from New Jersey selected to attend the Governor's School in the Sciences at Drew University. At Drew, I took courses in molecular orbital theory, special ** relativity**, cognitive psychology, and I participated in an astrophysics research project. For my independent research project, I used a telescope to find the angular velocity of Pluto. With the angular velocity determined, I used Einstein's field equations...

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recorded to have taken under 3 milliseconds, 60 nanoseconds faster than light would have taken.
Needless to say, there are many who have their doubts. Proving faster-than-light travel exists would undermine Albert Einstein's 1905 theory of special ** relativity**, which states that the speed of light (186,282 miles per second, or 671 million miles per hour) is a cosmic constant and that nothing can travel faster than this limit — a cornerstone of our understanding of the universe.
If FTL travel is in fact...

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own Milky Way showed that they were systematically moving away from us with a speed that was proportional to their distance from us. The more distant the galaxy, the faster it was receding from us. The universe was expanding after all, just as *General*** Relativity** originally predicted! Hubble observed that the light from a given galaxy was shifted further toward the red end of the light spectrum the further that galaxy was from our galaxy.
The specific form of Hubble's expansion law is important: the...

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limitations and get a fourth class degree. To work hard to get a better class of degree was regarded as the mark of a grey man - the worst epithet in the Oxford vocabulary."
After graduating from Oxford, Hawking went to Cambridge and studied *general*** relativity** and Cosmology. This was a difficult subject, especially for a person who had very little education in mathematics. Cosmology was generally related to theories on how the universe started and black holes. There had been no one working in those...

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call those mysterious masses black holes. But what are they?
How can one really define an object as complicated and abstract as a black hole? To understand the concept behind a black hole one must first understand the notion of Einstein's ** general** Theory of

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another parallel universe, or another place in our own universe, a white hole would push everything away from its hole. These white holes would have negative gravity, and admit light. These holes are mathematical solutions to the equations of *general*** relativity**. This doesn’t necessarily mean that they exist in nature. There is no way of actually producing a white hole. This white hole violates the second law of thermodynamics. This ordered system would become more disorganized with time, so a system...

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In Newtonian physics, free fall is any motion of a body where its weight is the only force acting upon it. In the context of *general*** relativity**, where gravitation is reduced to a space-time curvature, a body in free fall has no force acting on it and it moves along a geodesic. The present article only concerns itself with free fall in the Newtonian domain.
An object in the technical sense of free fall may not necessarily be falling down in the usual sense of the term. An object moving upwards...

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Bang theory was, “Einstein's ** General** Theory of

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black hole. His equations suggest such wormholes are viable alternatives to the "space-time singularities" that Albert Einstein predicted to be at the centre of black holes.
DIFFERENT THEORIES PROPOSED:
According to Einstein's equations for *general*** relativity**, singularities are created whenever matter in a given region gets too dense, as would happen at the ultra dense heart of a black hole.
Einstein's theory suggests singularities take up no space, are infinitely dense, and are infinitely hot—a...

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we now know that the accelerated expansion of the universe did not start until sometime in the last 10 billion years," Caldwell says.
Cosmologists are now scrambling to determine what exactly dark energy is. In 1917 Einstein amended his ** General** Theory of

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Unfortunately, war broke out. Einstein separated from his family leaving them behind and moving towards the future. Albert supported the pacifist group when World War One approached. After a year of thought Albert, at last, finished his theory of ** relativity**: Einstein reached another understanding of gravity. At the same time Einstein craved for peace to return. Germany was at their downfall and Albert was engaged in politics pushing for a new progressive party.
In about 1919, things were looking...

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theory of ** relativity**, scientists were able to find out that when so much matter is concentrated in a small region, gravitational forces are so strong and space so extremely warped that light is no longer just being bent, but trapped inside the object (see image on the left). Although the concept of black holes is relatively old, the findings and research on them are quite new. After being ignored for almost a century, the idea of black holes was again being explored thanks to Einstein’s

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Description: This chapter chronicles the works of Albert Einstein, predominantly his dual theories of Special ** Relativity** and

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physis, i.e. "nature"[1][2][3][4][5]) is a part of natural philosophy and a natural science that involves the study of matter[6] and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force.[7] More broadly, it is the ** general** analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.[8][9][10]
Physics is the field of science that studies the physical world. From the large (galaxies, planets, etc) to the small (how proteins fold, atoms, etc) physics...

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fundamental research pattern, Data Analysis and Simulation, I proposed a seminar in University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) where a series of presentations prepared me an overview of research frontier. All these experience made up a ** general** sketch of Astrophysics research conducted by Simulation and Data Analysis. And the study seems far from fanciful to imagine impresses me deeply the greatness of humanity. Though we are physically limited, our curiosity & pursuit is no boundaries....

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evolutionists believe that the changes in the genetic structure of living things over a long period of time leads to the creation of different species 4. This is the cornerstone of the evolutionary debate. Mutation is said to have occurred as the ** general** atmosphere of the earth changed and the living things had to adapt to the new conditions of life. So this means that as the earth’s atmosphere became less volatile and more stable living things began to evolve. However it must be noted that this process...

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studies of evaluating movement which was necessary in Einstein’s theory of ** relativity**.
Einstein has written and published work that has been inspirational to many. But none of his work is as famous as the E=mc2 equation. This equation is merely a component of the theory of

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laws of the
nature.
The laws of nature can be the physical laws. Scientists and philosophers who study and
follow the laws of the nature flourish, while those who devote their effort to challenge the law of
nature result little. Einstein’s *General*** Relativity** was not accepted by the world until Arthur
Stanley Eddington’s observation on solar ellipse supported its prediction. Scientific theory is
valued only if it is useful to predict the world governed by the laws of nature. In other words,
science...

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Motion and the Law of Gravitation.
He was appointed warden of the Mint
He was appointed the master of the Mint, a position which he held until his death.
Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist. He developed the ** general** theory of

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forces of all the objects in the universe should have caused the entire universe to collapse on itself. This clearly had not happened, and so astronomers were presented with a paradox.
When Einstein developed his theory of gravity in the ** General** Theory of

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relativistic redshift formula (and its classical approximation) can be used to calculate the redshift of a nearby object when spacetime is flat. However, many cases such as black holes and Big Bang cosmology require that redshifts be calculated using *general*** relativity**.[3] Special relativistic, gravitational, and cosmological redshifts can be understood under the umbrella of frame transformation laws. There exist other physical processes that can lead to a shift in the frequency of electromagnetic radiation...

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alternative models existed. It will become evident that the Big Bang theory lays down the
framework for the evolution of the universe.
One of the most significant observations is that the universe is expanding. When Einstein
applied his theory of *general*** relativity**, he found that it predicted an expanding or
contracting universe. (Expanding universe, n.d.) This caused Einstein to add a
cosmological constant to his equations that made his calculations consistent with a static
universe. (Expanding universe...

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which is a matter of chance as far as the photon’s path is concerned (42-43).
He takes his reader back to the beginning of his discussion by pointing to the 100 years between Newton’s proposing his theory of gravity and Einstein’s theory of *general*** relativity**, which explained gravity in accord with Newton’s original ideas. And then Wheeler makes a very unusual move: he transports the reader to a garden in which Plato and Aristotle conversed more than three millennia ago. He wonders if someday soon...

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statements of the second law are valid only for constant-mass systems, since any mass that is gained or lost by the system will cause a change in momentum that is not the result of an external law requires modification if the effects of special ** relativity** are to be taken into account, as it cannot be said that momentum is the product of inertial mass and velocity.
The equation for T, the tension of the cable in the experiment are given by,
T = mg-ma
T = Ma + µMg
The acceleration of an object...

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of your title and you have started with something familiar.
If your reader has read this far, then you have gained his confidence that you know what you are talking about and he can relate with it. Now you go to the next step by stating your ** general** problem: how to measure the acceleration of your car. He expects you give him something familiar again, so you say, “One way to measure the acceleration of a car is to get the difference between the readings in the speedometer between two times and...

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are non-luminous objects made of baryonic matter, and comprise of halos around galaxies. Examples of MACHOs are brown dwarfs and black holes. Brown dwarfs when created do not have sufficient mass for gravity to be luminous. Einstein’s ** General** Theory of

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was the fact that none of them proposed the origin of gravity.
Newton's law always proved to be true in the common world but did not explain
the source of the force (Eddington 95). Albert Einstein proposed his Theory of
Gravity in his ** General** Theory of

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Gravity. This topic is listed under the "Stephen Hawking" Wikipedia entry as one of Hawking's primary fields of research. Quantum Gravity is defined by Christopher Wanjek in Astronomy Today as, "...the long-sought missing link between Einstein's *General*** Relativity** and Quantum Mechanics, the two incongruous pillars of modern physics." Hawking expended large amounts of effort attempting to come up with a unified theory that would accurately marry the two predominating theories of our time.
After extensive...

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This is in contrast to ordinary quantum field theory, which predicts point particles that emit and absorb each other. String theory is a candidate for a Theory of Everything." String theory would solve the long fight between Einstein's theory of ** relativity** and Quantum Physics.
String theory proclaims that everything in our universe, from stars and suns to apples and atoms, is made up of incredibly small particles called strings. Strings are so small, that if an atom were the size of our solar system...

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and our very nature unite us across space and time – that, like the scene before the speaker, we exist simultaneously both and in and out of time and so achieve unity with all.
Central to “Crossing Brooklyn Ferry” and to Whitman’s worldview in ** general** is human individuality. One’s unique, physical identity is the lens through which he or she experiences life – it is an anchor to reality that keeps one firmly within the flow of time. Throughout the poem, the speaker is keenly of this individuality...

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Plot a graph <y> versus t2 (plot t2 on the abscissa, i.e., x-axis). The equation of motion for an object in free fall starting from rest is y = ½ gt2, where g is the acceleration due to gravity. This is the equation of a parabola, which has the ** general** form y = ax2.
Results 3:
Task 4. Determine the slope of the line and compute an experimental value of g from the slope value. Remember, the slope of this graph represents ½ g.
Results 4:
Task 5. Compute the percent error of the experimental value...

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flying through space and away from the point of explosion, which persists even today! This is what termed as ‘Expanding Universe’. Wonder, what proves scientists that the universe is expanding? Understanding Doppler Effect and Einstein’s Theory of ** Relativity**, one would say that, a wave released by a body speeding away from a point will tend to have longer waves, if you look at the wave from that very point. The farther it moves away, the longer the waves appear, and vice versa! Try observing the fourth...

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universal expansion. The idea also highlighted the reality that there is much we do not understand about the Universe. Dark energy is a force that repulses gravity, which cannot exist according to Newtonian theories on gravity, but does exist in *general*** relativity** theories (Caldwell & Kamionkowski, 2009). Caldwell and Kamionowski go on to explain that the gravitational field of a negative-pressure fluid, caused by thermal molecular motions, is repulsive. The fluid is dark energy. Other theories...

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form of photons. He was one of the first physicists to acknowledge that particles could only obtain certain discrete energies. This radically went against Newton’s laws that were completely set in stone. Albert Einstein came up with the theory of ** relativity** which placed all particles to have a speed limit at the speed of light. He also proposed that when going to near speed of light speed all of Newton’s laws of physics break down. Einstein was also able to explain Newton claimed force of gravity by...

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which he first presents the ideas of universal gravitation and his famous three laws of motion.
Within the second chapter Hawking delves into the topic of space and time focusing upon the main points of absolute rest and position, the theory of ** relativity**, as well as light. With Newton’s laws of gravity, it was impossible for objects to be at absolute rest when moving at speeds close to the speed of light. In 1676, Ole Christensen Roemer discovered the speed of light; however, it was calculated at...

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density, this is also known as singularity, a collapsed core (Smith, H. R.). Black holes are also able to merge with other black holes to form a super massive black hole, this is present in the centres of most galaxies (Wikipedia).
Source: Cambridge ** Relativity**
The process at which black holes are made simply only involve the cores of stars. The size of the core of the star is essential in determining whether a dying star will form into a black hole, a white dwarf or a neutron star. Cores of stars approximately...

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board so the crew can escape the free-fall environment from time to time to get important work done easier, but I’m guessing Velcro is much cheaper than a centrifugal force machine for the ship.
Overall, Forward does a really good job explaining ** general** space physics and how these scenarios are accurate to real life without interfering too much with the story. The Mercury station’s “orbit” using the Sun to counteract the pull of Mercury is quite an interesting and brilliant idea that seems like a...

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because it does not exist. I only made this all up. That is Strange Filipino Behaviors Explained by Albert Einstein.
Among his famous and remembered subject matter involves the use of our Imagination, accounting, curiosity, innovation, infinity and ** relativity**. And oh boy, we, the Filipinos internalized, embraced and made it our own. If you don't understand and you don't believe what I am telling you, then I will let the facts of our everyday lives make it for you.
We always thought of Einstein as...

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different points in time, in a behavior corresponding to moving between different points in space. Time travel could deal with moving forward in a timeline or backward in a timeline. Jane Marshall, a leading physicist today said “Einstein's theory of ** relativity** is a theory of space and time, and should be no surprise that black holes offer, in concept, a way to travel through space and time” (All Sands). Even some of the earliest literature works of time travel dates back to 700 BC with the story of Raviata...

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write it off as the act of God. It was his divine will that moved
the planets together in such a way as to be able to support life. Or you could
ask the more worldly scientist who would explain to you about the Law of
Probability, the Theory of ** Relativity**, and show you lengthy mathematical
equations dealing with Quantum and Theoretical Physics. In the end, you would
likely have a headache of immense size, but come away with perhaps a better
understanding of how the order of events, and the laws...

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the optimal travel speed would be faster than light travel or FTL. Although the speed of light is the ultimate limitation in physics, several schemes for breaking this limit have been proposed. One idea would be traveling through a wormhole. *General*** relativity** typically supports the idea that space-time can be bunched up and when this happens, you basically get a shortcut to another part of space-time. Of course if this concept did indeed work, a slight flaw in the plan is that the end that you enter...

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with the dependent variables, results much like the collected data would reappear.
C. Interpretation of Results
Evidentially, this experiment sheds light on Newton’s theory of gravitational pull along with complimenting Einstein’s Theory of ** Relativity**. Because gravity does not act as a force, the uneven distribution of mass and energy results in a pull towards the ground, gaining momentum until forced otherwise. This clearly shows the relative frame of reference that relates both time and space...

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