7.1 Newton’s Law of Universal ** Gravitation**
Newton’s Law of Universal

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Circular Motion and ** Gravitation**
Circular motion is everywhere, from atoms to galaxies, from flagella to Ferris wheels. Two terms are frequently used to describe such motion. In general, we say that an object rotates when the axis of rotation lies within the body, and that it revolves when the axis is outside it. Thus, the Earth rotates on its axis and revolves about the Sun.
When a body rotates on its axis, all the particles of the body revolve – that is, they move in circular paths about...

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Newton's Law of Universal ** Gravitation**
Gravity if one of the four fundamental forces in the universe. Though
the fundamental principles of it eluded scientists until Sir Isaac Newton was
able to mathematically describe it in 1687 (Eddington 93). Gravity plays a
serious part in everyday actions as it keeps everything on the ground; without
gravity everything would be immobile unless a force was applied (then it would
move infinitely because there would be no force to stop it).
Perhaps, the best...

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Universal ** Gravitation**
Objectives
* Compare and contrast gravitational force vectors as mass and distance are changed. (Explorations 1, 2, and 3)
* Discover how changes in the distance between two objects affects the gravitational force between them. (Explorations 1, 2, and 3)
* Describe how changes in the masses of two objects affects the gravitational force between them. (Explorations 1, 2, and 3)
Description of Activity
In this activity, you will explore how distance and mass...

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There is a popular story that Newton was sitting under an apple tree, an apple fell on his head, and he suddenly thought of the Universal Law of ** Gravitation**. As in all such legends, this is almost certainly not true in its details, but the story contains elements of what actually happened.
What Really Happened with the Apple?
Probably the more correct version of the story is that Newton, upon observing an apple fall from a tree, began to think along the following lines: The apple is accelerated...

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mighty planets are formed from cosmic dust. The red beans (dependent variable) were tested in the vacuum chamber with Earth’s ** gravitation** pull and without the

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until one huge black hole was created. Quasars, the bright area at the middle of galaxies that produces humongous quantities of energy, could possibly contain black holes.
The intense black hole ** gravitation** is strong enough to curve the time and space in its neighborhood. The intense

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from the sun. The moon acts as a mirror, reflecting the sun’s light, which gives it the appearance of illumination.
Scientists have always known the sun and moon play some part in the tides. However, it was not until Isaac Newton’s theory of ** gravitation** in 1687 that the phenomenon could be explained. (The Heavens, 1992). Since then, it has been discovered that the moon is responsible for about 54 percent of the tidal forces, while the sun accounts for about 46 percent. The moon’s gravitational...

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wall. The Professor had very little mass compared to the wall. So the wall did not move but the Professor did.
Reading Assignment #5: Force Categories
Textbook Sections that I Read – 2.6-9
Important Concepts:
Newton’s law of universal ** gravitation** – Any two objects exert gravitational forces on each other that are proportional to the masses (m1-m2) of the two objects.
Even though masses may be highly different, the forces exerted on each will always be the same (opposite direction).
Since...

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efficiency) of any ATM/store depends on its distance from the customer or gravity of attraction (Huff et al. 1963). The influence of any store/ATM decays exponentially as its distance from consumer increases
Reilly’s Law of Retail ** Gravitation** - Reilly's law of retail

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in the star is always pushing out and balancing out the force of gravity. When the nuclear fuel becomes exhausted and there is no more burning; there is no heat left to neutralize the force of gravity and the star begins to die. This allows the ** gravitation** to compress the star and its materials inward resulting in the compression of the core. Ultimately the heat becomes so intense that in creates a supernova explosion. This explosion then causes the material and radiation to soar out into space...

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relationship:
Newton's Law of Universal ** Gravitation**
r - the distance separating the centers of mass of the objects
F - the force of gravity (in units now referred to as newtons)
m1 & m2 - masses of the two objects (in kilograms)
G - the gravitational constant
This is often called the "universal law of

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B. Newton’s Law of Universal ** Gravitation** states that gravitational force depends on the distance between two masses
Newton’s Law of Universal

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changes of speed, changes of direction, or both. Scholars felt if the object is perfectly round will continue moving unless interfered.
7. Why gravity is called a universal force? What is the difference between g and G?
Newton's law of universal ** gravitation** says between any two objects in the universe there is an attractive force (gravity) that is proportional to the masses of the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. In other words, the more massive two objects...

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very high and the low tides are very low. This is known as Spring High Tide. Spring tides are especially strong tides (they have nothing to do with the season Spring). They occur when the Earth and the Sun and the Moon are in alignment. The ** gravitation** forces of the Moon and the Sun both contribute to the tides. The Moon is responsible for 56% of the Earth's tidal energy. P.S. The Moon is nearly 240,000 miles away from the Earth. The actual height of the tide is influenced by the shape of...

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general theories have emerged from observations. Sticking with ** gravitation** as an example: Tycho Brahe and his assistant Johannes Kepler worked for forty years observing the solar system. Kepler eventually abstracted from this data a general pattern: his three laws of planetary motion. Isaac Newton continued this process of abstraction, showing that Kepler’s laws and observations were a consequence of an inverse-square law of

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is in contact with another stable object), the force of movement (the force from the wheels-moment of an object) and the force of friction (the force exerted by a surface as an object moves across). According to Isaac Newton’s law of Universal ** Gravitation**, objects near the surface of the earth accelerate at a rate of 9.8m/s/s towards the ground.
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between the angle of inclination and the acceleration of a physics cart. This was...

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In Newtonian physics, free fall is any motion of a body where its weight is the only force acting upon it. In the context of general relativity, where ** gravitation** is reduced to a space-time curvature, a body in free fall has no force acting on it and it moves along a geodesic. The present article only concerns itself with free fall in the Newtonian domain.
An object in the technical sense of free fall may not necessarily be falling down in the usual sense of the term. An object moving upwards...

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not propelled around the track by a motor. The transfer of potential energy to kinetic energy is what steers the roller coaster, and all of the kinetic energy required for the ride is present once the coaster goes down the first ‘hill’. Laws of ** Gravitation** Gravitational energy takes place due to the gravitational force by which matter attracts other matter. As the coaster is pulled up the first ‘peak’ of the coaster, the gravitational energy increases. When the coaster Montezum Roller Coaster reaches...

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The “missing mass problem” requires astronomers and particle physicists to either contest Einstein’s Laws of ** Gravitation** or to search for the unknown. Scientist put forward the concept that the unknown or unseen actually refers to “dark matter”, which accounts for the missing mass problem. One key problem however in explaining dark matter is that it is unexplained by Laws of

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observe the moving object to be shorter in length.
General relativity or the general theory of relativity (GR) in whole is the geometric theory of ** gravitation**. It is what we currently define as gravity in modern physics. GR integrates with special relativity in relatively, but GR consists of Newton’s law of universal

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ongoing on our planet. Gravity is a downward force on any body of mass, the larger the mass of the body, the stronger the gravitational force. On earth the force is 9.8 N/Kg (Newton's per Kilogram) roughly, depending on where you are on earth.
** Gravitation**
The original idea of gravity was discovered by Sir Isaac Newton (Jacob 1999). It is said that Newton was sitting under
an apple tree and an apple fell from the tree striking him on the head. (What probably happened was that he watched an apple...

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composed of?
How do stars vary in size?
What is the universe composed of?
Describe the scale distances in the universe
What are galaxies composed of?
How do galaxies compare in size?
What is gravity?
What is the Law of universal ** gravitation**?
How does mass and distance affect gravitational attraction?
Who does gravity affect weight?
How does gravity affect planetary motion?
What role did gravity play in the formation of the universe and our solar system?
What gases are...

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between the centers of the objects. It is
plain to see that gravity is quite important. The effects of gravity have been studied by
many brilliant physicists and astronomers, but still the cause of gravity remains unknown.
The law of ** gravitation** plays a very prominent role in our view of the universe; it is the
force of gravity which causes a book to fall in a mud puddle, which holds our planet in its
orbit around the Sun, which provides a reason for the existence of weight, yet...

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into a three-volume book, the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), known to posterity as the Principia. It set forth Newton's three laws of motion, and proceeded to set forth the theory of ** gravitation**, and back it up with rigorous mathematical proofs. Although the theory had many detractors at first, the scientific community would ultimately embrace it, and the Newtonian world-view would dominate physics until the 20th century.
Principia made...

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of the Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical Society in London. Einstein became the successor of the great Isaac Newton. Joseph John Thomson, president of the Royal Society, stated "This is the most important result related to the theory of ** gravitation** since the days of Newton...This result is among the greatest achievements of human thinking."
Now Einstein and his Theory of Relativity were a big deal. He received invitations and honors from everywhere. There was always a magazine reporting...

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equation 6
It can be also expressed as:
P=FΔsΔt=Fv equation 7
P= F .v equation 8
One part of the experiment is where a hanging object tied in a string with a certain length, L. It is constantly raised where work and potential ** gravitation** energy is computed.
On a motion of a body moving in a curved path.
ΣFx=F-Tsinθ=0
ΣFy=-W+Tcosθ=0
Dividing both equations:
F=Wtanθ
W=Fdlcosθ
where dl=dx=Rdθ
W=(Wtanθ)cosθRdθ
W=WR0θsinθdθ
W=WR(1-cosθ) equation 9
Aside from kinetic, another...

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2. the centripetal force
ac =v^2r
Non-Uniform Circular Motion
Vertical Circle
Resultant force toward the centre is
FNET = FC= mv2r
Top: mv2r = mg + Tension
Bottom: mv2r = tension - mg
Universal Law of ** Gravitation**
Everybody in the universe attracts every other body in the universe with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. This force acts along the line joining...

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http://www.physicsclassroom.com/mmedia/circmot/rcd.cfm
What is ‘g force’ in physics?
G, in physics, a symbol relating to gravity. A capital G indicates the gravitational constant, as explained in the article ** GRAVITATION**. A lower-case g stands for the acceleration imparted by gravity at the earth's surface. An acceleration of 1 g is 32. 1 feet per second per second (9.8 m/s2).
Fliers and astronauts may experience accelerations many times larger than 1 g. These accelerations are usually expressed...

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it as a result make new discoveries in which case both thinking of something in a new way and making new discoveries would have been equally important.
We can for instance look into the famous example of the falsification of Newton’s theory of ** gravitation** by Einstein’s theory of relativity. Einstein like all other Scientists of that time saw nothing wrong with Newton’s model until a crisis came when Newton’s theory of gravity failed to account for the behavior of light. Obviously this had to be a...

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it down and eventually stop? If all friction and air resistance was eliminated (plus, the losses due to deformation of the string and the like) the pendulum, under ONLY the effect of gravity, would keep swinging indefinitely. This is because ** gravitation** is a 'conservative' force; it does not drain any energy from the object moving under it, it just converts the energy from one form to another. When the pendulum reaches either end at its highest point, all the energy is potential energy, and...

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Newton's Law of Universal ** Gravitation**
Apples had a significant contribution
to the discovery of

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bachelor's degree in 1665.
The school shut down for two years due to the plague. During the two years it shut down, Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe showed the development of his theories on calculus, optics and the law of ** gravitation**. He discovered the generalized binomial theorem while at home which was later developed into infinitesimal calculus. When the school reopened he returned to Trinity.
He was elected a Fellow of Trinity College in 1667. He received his master's...

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Name: _______________________
Universal ** Gravitation** Lab
Go to http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/gravity-force-lab
and click on Run Now.
Introduction:
Every object around you is attracted to you. In fact, every object in the galaxy is attracted to every other object in the galaxy. Newton postulated and Cavendish confirmed that all objects with mass are attracted to all other objects with mass by a force that is proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the square...

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moment you, or any other object, jumps or is tossed into the air, gravity brings you back down. There are a few formulas commonly used for gravity, but the formula often used is (F = Gm1m2/r2). The formula derives from Newton’s Law of universal ** gravitation**, which states that the gravitational force in the midst of two objects mirrors and is proportional to the mass of each. The formula more commonly known but the younger audience is (g = GM/r2) whereas M is earth’s mass and r is its radius. There...

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Title:
Do heavier objects fall faster than light objects?
Aim:
To observe whether a heavier or lighter object would fall first.
Background Information:
** Gravitation** or gravity is a natural phenomenon by which all physical bodies attract each other. It is more commonly experienced as the agent that gives weight to objects with mass and causes them to fall to the ground when dropped. The larger an object is, the greater the force of attraction will be. It was Italian scientist Galileo Galilei...

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neglected. It has the approximate value of 9.80 m/s2, although it varies with altitude and location. The gravitational acceleration can be obtained from theory by applying Newton’s Law of Universal ** Gravitation** to find the force between the Earth and an object at its surface. Newton’s Law of Universal

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that solar gravity bound the planets to their orbits around the sun. By using Kepler’s laws, geometry, algebra, and his new laws of motion he was able to pull everything together to explain the universe in a very basic way; the law of universal ** gravitation**. This law states that the attraction between any two bodies in the universe is directly proportional to the product of their masses, as well as inversely proportional to the distance between them squared. Or…
FG = GMm/R2
“Newton's...

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Assignments in Science Class IX (Term I)
10a
** Gravitation**
IMPORTANTIMPORTANT NOTES NOTES IMPORTANT NOTES
7. Acceleration due to gravity of the Earth : The acceleration with which the bodies fall towards the earth is called acceleration due to gravity. Its average value is 9.81 ms–2. 8. Variation of acceleration due to gravity. (i) Acceleration due to gravity changes with the change in distance from the centre of the earth. (ii) Acceleration due to gravity is maximum at the poles of the earth...

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machines. In this wat some useful energy is wasted as heat energy.
2.)due to friction we have to exert more power in machines.
3.)due to friction noise also produced in machines
Friction force and what does it state:
newton’s law of universal ** gravitation** states that every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Example of everyday...

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Newton’s Laws of Cooling & Universal ** Gravitation**
Law’s of Cooling:
Newton's law of cooling is used measure the temperature change of an object of some
temperature placed in a place of a different temperature. The law states that
dT/dt= k(T-R)
where T is the temperature of the object at time t, R is the temperature of the surrounding of the
place (constant) and k is a constant of proportionality. This law states that the rate of change of
temperature is proportional to the difference between...

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Stannard P & Williamson K, 2007 Science World 3. 2nd edn, Macmillan Education Australia Pty Ltd, South Yarra
Geddes, S.M. 1981, Advanced Physics: ** Gravitation** - The Acceleration due to Gravity, Macmillian Education Limited, Hampshire, pp. 116-118.
Giancoli, Douglas C. 1980, Physics - Principles with Applications: Circular and Rotational Motion;

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elevator experiment wherein at the end it was shown that a person cannot tell the difference between the pull of acceleration and gravity, and respectively the weightlessness felt in free space and on earth. Therefore, if acceleration is equivalent to ** gravitation**, it follows that the predictions in special relativity is valid for very strong gravitational field.
As a whole, time dilation is caused mainly by speed and gravity. There are these principles and theories that could show that time could really...

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K2. Define Newton’s Law of Universal ** Gravitation**
Remember- Universal

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Greenwich, United Kingdom
Discovered: Halley's Comet
Education: The Queen's College, Oxford, University of Oxford, St Paul's School, London
The English astronomer Edmund Halley was a good friend of Isaac Newton. He used Newton's new theory of ** gravitation** to find the orbits of comets from their recorded positions in the sky as a function of time. He found that the bright comets of 1531, 1607, and 1682 had almost the same orbits, and when he accounted for the gravitational perturbation on the cometary...

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General relativity is a theory of ** gravitation** that was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915. According to general relativity, the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from their warping of space and time.
By the beginning of the 20th century, Newton's law of universal

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measure of the force with which it is attracted by a gravitational force, it is measured in Newtons (N). It is directly related to the strength of the gravitational field at a point where the object is located. W=mg
Newton’s Law of Universal ** Gravitation**
where G is the universal gravitational constant (6.67x10-11m3/kg)
The Gravitational Field
Explain that a change in gravitational potential energy is related to work done
Work done is the measure of how much energy was used to displace an...

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According to special relativity,
space and time depend on one’s
state of motion.
1
2.
Conflict between Einstein’s special
relativity and Newton’s law of
universal ** gravitation**.
• Special relativity---no influence
or disturbance of any sort can
travel faster than the speed of
light.
• Law of Universal

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work ‘The Founddation of the General Theory of Relativity’ Einstein took Newton’s Law of Universal ** Gravitation**, which states “the force of gravity is proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the point masses”, and unified it with his own special relativity, along with the effects of gravity. Newton's law of universal

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idea saying that the only way to change the motion of a body is to use force. If the body speed up, a force has been applied sideways, i.e. a force is needed to change the speed or the direction of motion of a body.
2. Inverse square law of ** gravitation**
The fact that the planets does not move in a straight line with uniform speed indicates that there is a force acting on it and it is proportional to the acceleration according to first and second laws of Newton. Newton found the acceleration of...

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of Relativity to a more generalized theory that would encompass a broader class of transformations between observers. He finally succeeded in 1915, when he published his General Theory of Relativity, a theory of unsurpassed beauty that explained ** gravitation** as arising simply out of the geometry (or curvature) of spacetime. He also showed how the force of gravity had to go beyond the simple but successful theory of Newton. In particular, the force of gravity did not entail Newton’s idea of instantaneous...

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— Circular Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 10 — Center of Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 11 — Rotational Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 12 — Universal ** Gravitation** . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 13 — Gravitational Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 14 — Satellite Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 25 — Vibrations and Waves . . . . . . ...

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gravitational force between the object and Earth?
a.
The force increases linearly.
b.
The force decreases exponentially.
c.
The force increases exponentially.
d.
The force remains the same.
65. According to Newton’s Law of Universal ** Gravitation**, the gravitational force between two masses is proportional to the product of the two masses and:
a.
becomes stronger as the density of the masses decreases.
b.
becomes stronger as the masses are moved a greater distance apart.
c.
becomes...

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Newtons 2nd Law – F = ma:
Weight = Mass x Acceleration due to gravity (W = mg)
• Gravitational Force of Attraction between 2 bodies: F = Gm1m2
r2
• Note: Universal constant of ** gravitation** = 6.67 x 10-11 Nm2kg-2
Explain that a change in gravitational potential energy is related to work done
Work done is the measure of how much energy was used to displace an object a specified distance (W = Fs). When an object is moved away from...

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gravitational field (such as Earth's) the object's acceleration increases and thus the velocity of the object speeds up. It is defined as: Ep = 0 at a distance of infinity.
E p = −G
m1 m2 r
Ep = Gravitational Potential Energy (J) G = Universal ** Gravitation** Constant = 6.67x10-11 m1 = Mass of first object (kg) m2 = Mass of second object – often the Earth (kg) r = distance from the centre of the Earth (m) 1. perform an investigation and gather information to determine a value for acceleration due to...

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PAGE 18 -
Chapter 7: ** Gravitation** Gravitational Field Force between point masses Field of a point mass Field near to the surface of the Earth Gravitational Potential a. Show an understanding of the concept of a gravitational field as an example of field of force and define gravitational field strength as force per unit mass. Gravitational field strength at a point is defined as the gravitational force per unit mass at that point. b. Recall and use Newton's law of

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attraction between any two masses. From a relativistic point of view gravity can be described as the warping of space around a mass but this treatment is beyond the scope of the HSC course.
Students learn to “define Newton’s Law of Universal ** Gravitation**: F = Gm1m2/d2”
Every object in the Universe attracts every other object with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centres of mass.
F m1m2/d2
...

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published in the physical sciences. In it Newton not only put forward a theory of how bodies move in space and time, but he also developed the complicated mathematics needed to analyze those motions. In addition, Newton postulated a law of universal ** gravitation** according to which each body in the universe was attracted toward every other body by a force that was stronger the more massive the bodies and the closer they were to each other. It was this same force that caused objects to fall to the ground...

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be inertial for a particle far from the Earth where the gravitational field is negligible will not be inertial for a particle near the Earth. An approximate compatibility between the two, however, can be achieved through a remarkable property of ** gravitation** called the weak equivalence principle (WEP): all modest-sized bodies fall in a given external gravitational field with the same acceleration regardless of their mass, composition, or structure. Baron Roland von Eotvos (after such experiments have...

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of their semimajor axes:
Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727)
From Kepler’s laws (not an apple) Newton conceived of Universal Law of ** Gravitation**:
For example, consider planet in circular orbit around Sun:
(Equation 1) - to be used in homework to find period of orbit as a function of orbit radius, etc.
Mass of the Earth
From Newton's Universal Law of

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