top-rated free essay


By naveen4848 Sep 15, 2014 936 Words
Lecture Outlines

Ian A. Waitz

Course Learning Objectives:
To be able to use the First Law of Thermodynamics to estimate the potential for thermomechanical energy conversion in aerospace power and propulsion systems.

Measurable outcomes (assessment method):
1) To be able to state the First Law and to define heat, work, thermal efficiency and the difference between various forms of energy. (quiz, self-assessment, PRS) 2) To be able to identify and describe energy exchange processes (in terms of various forms of energy, heat and work) in aerospace systems. (quiz, homework, self-assessment, PRS)

3) To be able to explain at a level understandable by a high school senior or nontechnical person how various heat engines work (e.g. a refrigerator, an IC engine, a jet engine). (quiz, homework, self-assessment, PRS)

4) To be able to apply the steady-flow energy equation or the First Law of Thermodynamics to a system of thermodynamic components (heaters, coolers, pumps, turbines, pistons, etc.) to estimate required balances of heat, work and energy flow. (homework, quiz, self-assessment, PRS)

5) To be able to explain at a level understandable by a high school senior or nontechnical person the concepts of path dependence/independence and reversibility/irreversibility of various thermodynamic processes, to represent these in terms of changes in thermodynamic state, and to cite examples of how these would impact the performance of aerospace power and propulsion systems. (homework, quiz, self-assessment, PRS)

6) To be able to apply ideal cycle analysis to simple heat engine cycles to estimate thermal efficiency and work as a function of pressures and temperatures at various points in the cycle. (homework, self-assessment, PRS)

Teaching & Learning Methods
1) Detailed lecture notes are available on the web (for viewing and/or downloading). You should download a copy of these and bring them with you to lecture. 2) Preparation and participation will be important for learning the material. You will be responsible for studying the notes prior to each lecture. Several reading


assignments will be given to help promote this activity (1/3 of participation grade).
3) Several active learning techniques will be applied on a regular basis (turn-to-yourpartner exercises, muddiest part of the lecture, and ungraded concept quizzes). We will make extensive use of the PRS system (2/3 of participation grade). 4) Homework problems will be assigned (approximately one hour of homework per lecture hour). The Unified Engineering collaboration rules apply.


Lecture Outlines

Ian A. Waitz


Thermodynamics (VW, S & B: Chapter 1)
A. Describes processes that involve changes in temperature,
transformation of energy, relationships between heat and work. B. It is a science, and more importantly an engineering tool, that is necessary for describing the performance of propulsion systems, power generation systems, refrigerators, fluid flow, combustion, ....

C. Generalization of extensive empirical evidence (however most thermodynamic principles and can be derived from kinetic
D. Examples of heat engines
Combustion Heat 

Solar Heat

 Nuclear Heat

 Mechanical Work 
 Electrical Energy 

[ Heat Engine]

[Waste Heat ]

 Mechanical Work 
 Electrical Energy 

[ Heat ]
Waste Heat


V1, T1

1. propulsion system

Air + fuel
V2, T2



2. power generation




3. Refrigerator

E. Questions:
1. Describe the energy exchange processes in ___________ (fill in the blank, e.g. a nuclear power plant, a refrigerator, a jet engine).
2. Given that energy is conserved, where does the fuel+oxidizer energy that is used to power an airplane go?
3. Describe the energy exchange processes necessary to use electricity from a nuclear power plant to remove heat from the food in a refrigerator. 4. Describe the energy exchange processes necessary for natural gas to be used to provide electricity for the lights in the room you are in.


Concept of a thermodynamic system (VW, S & B: 2.1)
A. A quantity of matter of fixed identity, boundaries may be fixed or movable, can transfer heat and work across boundary but not
Force x distance (work)

System boundary

System boundary

Electrical energy

Heat (Q)

B. Identifiable volume with steady flow in and out, a control volume. Often more useful way to view devices such as engines
System boundary

m, p1,T1


m, p2,T2

III. Thermodynamic state of a system
A. The thermodynamic state of a system is defined by specifying a set of measurable properties sufficient so that all remaining
properties are determined. Examples of properties: pressure, temperature, density, internal energy, enthalpy, and entropy. B. For engineering purposes we usually want gross, average,
macroscopic properties (not what is happening to individual
molecules and atoms) thus we consider substances as continua -the properties represent averages over small volumes. For example, there are 1016 molecules of air in 1 mm3 at standard temperature and pressure. (VW, S & B: 2.2)

. Intensive properties do not depend on mass (e.g. p, T, ρ, v=1/ρ, u and h); extensive properties depend on the total mass of the system (e.g. V, M, U and H). Uppercase letters are usually used for extensive properties. (VW, S & B: 2.3)

D. Equilibrium: States of a system are most conveniently described when the system is in equilibrium, i. e. it is in steady-state. Often we will consider processes that change “slowly” -- termed quasisteady. (VW, S & B: 2.3-2.4) thermally insulated



Gas 1


Gas 2


1. mechanical equilibrium
(force balances pressure times area)



Gas 1

Gas 2

2. thermal equilibrium
(same temperature)

E. Two properties are needed to define the state of any pure substance undergoing a steady or quasi-steady process. (This is an experimental fact!) (VW, S & B: 3.1, 3.3)
1. For example for a thermally perfect gas (this is a good engineering approximation for many situations, but not all (good for p

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Thermodynamics Lab

    ...Thermodynamics- Enthalpy of Reaction and Hess’s Law Objectives: 1. To calculate the heat of reaction of a given reaction using the concepts derived from Hess’s Law. Pre-lab Questions: 1. Define Heat of Reaction. The enthalpy change associated with the completion of a chemical reaction. 2. Define Specific Heat. The energy it takes to r...

    Read More
  • Thermodynamics

    ...Biomolecule BCH 3101 Thermodynamics of Biological Systems • Movement, growth, synthesis of biomolecules, and the transport of ions and molecules across membranes all requires energy. • All organisms acquire energy from their surroundings and utilize that energy efficiently to carry out life processes. • In order to study these bio-energet...

    Read More
  • Thermodynamics Of Borax

    ...Thermodynamics of Borax C3C Justin Nevins Chemistry 200, Section M1A Introduction The purpose of the lab was to determine how the solubility of Borax (Na2B4(OH)4) and other thermodynamic quantities such as enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy depend on temperature. When Sodium borate octahydrate (Borax) dissociates in water it forms two...

    Read More
  • Thermodynamic steady flow process

    ... THERMODYNAMICS - THEORY     A control volume may involve one or more forms of work at the same time. If the boundary of the control volume is stationary, the moving boundary work is zero, and the work terms involved are shaft work and electric work. Another work form with the fluid is flow work.           Flow Wo...

    Read More
  • Thermodynamics Of Borax LAB REPORT

    ...was conducted to determine the standard entropy and enthalpy of the dissolving reaction of borax in water. The thermodynamic properties of the reaction helped to determine the change in heat and spontaneity within the system. Entropy is said to be the tendency for the universe to move towards disorder. If the value of entropy is positive, then t...

    Read More
  • Calorimetry: Thermodynamics and Specific Heat Value

    ... Calorimetry and Specific Heat Tessa Williams Chemistry 111 11/13/13 Abstract: In this experiment, the specific heat and the density of an unknown metal was determined in order to identify the unknown metal. The average specific heat of the unknown metal was 0.197˚C and was determined using a calorim...

    Read More

    ...Thermodynamics- Enthalpy of Reaction and Hess’s Law December 5, 2011 Kylie Case, Emma McKee, Rebecca Smith Purpose: In this lab, the purpose was to verify Hess’s Law. Theory: Four main topics were covered during this experiment including enthalpy of reaction, heat of formation, Hess’s Law, and calorimetry. The first being en...

    Read More
  • Thermodynamic Variables of KNO3

    ...Solution Calorimetry: Thermodynamics of Potassium Nitrate II. Abstract A determination of thermodynamic variables of KNO3 is presented. KNO3 was heated and dissolved in varying volumes of distilled water. Upon dissolution, the KNO3 solution was removed from heat and the temperature was recorded once crystals formed. For eac...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.