1.The name of the ancient ancestors of the Romans who settled in 12 self-governing city-state kingdoms, spoke Latin, and introduced the arch in architecture were the _____________________________.
2.The most powerful social class in Rome was the one made up of the large landholding aristocrats who could trace their blood lines back to the original founders of Rome called ________________________.
3.All Roman citizens that were not of aristocratic blood, whether they were wealthy or impoverished, were known as _____________________________.
4.In 509 BC the aristocrats of Rome overthrew their king and established the Roman Republic, giving the power to govern to elected body of aristocrats called the __________________________.
5.The title of the two executive leaders of that body, who were elected for one year and who also served as commander-in-chiefs of the Roman army was _________________________.
6.The other governing body of the Roman Republic that was composed of all male citizens who were not aristocrats over the age of 25 years of age was called the _________________________________.
7.The first crisis of the Roman Republic when the commoners walked out of Rome threatening to form a new city state because of exploitation was called the ______________________________________.
8.One of the commoners demands was for their own elected official who sit in the Senate to listen and exercise their veto over legislation which official was called a _____________________.
9.The law that finally gave the lower assembly an equal right to make laws as the aristocratic body was called ______________________________________.
10.The main goddess of Rome, whom the Romans believed would always protect them so long as they never extinguish the fire that burned in her honor was named ___________________.
11.To have great courage and honorably fight for what you believe in is the quality most admired in Roman society. They called that quality ____________________.
12.The original Roman laws that were written down and placed in the Forum to convince the commoners to return to Rome are called the ________________________________.
13.The name for the other Etruscan cities that Rome gave all rights of Roman citizens except to own land in Rome, vote or marry a Roman was ______________________________.
14. The first foreign territory conquered by Rome, causing them to create the province which will be governed by an appointed senator to serve for one year as its governor, was ______________________.
15.The Roman’s won the First Punic War against Carthage by inventing a new type of vessel that could carry many soldiers as its oarsmen called a __________________________.
16.To avenge Carthage’s honor and his father death, Hannibal launched a surprise invasion through the Alps in the dead of winter into northern Italy which began the _____________________________________.
17. The victor of that war was a Roman consul who led the Romans into an invasion of Africa, defeating Hannibal in the Battle of Zama was named ____________________________.
18.The Roman Tribune who first stood up for the exploited Roman foot soldiers demanding that they be given five acres of every new territory they conquered was ____________________________.
Give the two reasons why the assassination of that Tribune began the fall of the Republic:
22.The later Roman counsels who used their army support to succeed year after year as consuls and control Rome from behind the scenes were called ____________________________________________.
23.The greatest crisis in Rome’s history, after its desperate effort to defeat Hannibal, was the rebellion of its Etruscan allies who wanted full Roman citizenship was called the _______________________________.
The First Triumvirate was a three-man strongman rule established by a wealthy senator named Crassius and two young and very ambitious military senators named:
26. Julius Caesar expanded Rome’s empire more than any other by conquering Germany, France and Britain in his Gallic Campaign and reformed the government of Rome by adding a ______________________.
The Second Triumvirate that avenged Julius Caesar’s death was made up of a Senator named Lepidus and
27. The military hero second-in-command to Caesar named _____________________________, and
28. Caesar’s blood heir, his nephew, whose name was __________________________________