1.gentry: the class of prosperous families, next in wealth below rural aristocrats, from which the emperors drew their administrative personnel. 2.third-century crisis: Historians’ term for the political, military, and economic turmoil that beset the Roman Empire during much of the third century. C.E 3.aqueduct: A conduit, either elevated or underground, using gravity to carry water from a source to a location. 4.Romanization: The process by which latin language and Roman culture became dominant in the western provinces of the Roman Empire. 5.equites: In ancient Italy, prosperous landowners second in wealth and status to the senatorial aristocracy. 6.Roman Principate: A term used to characterize Roman government in the first three centuries C.E. 7.patron/client relationship: In ancient Rome, a fundamental social relationship in which the patron- an wealthy individual- provided legal and economic protection and assistance to clients 8.plebeians: A member of lower social class in ancient Rome 9.patricians: an aristocrat or a nobleman
10.tribunes: an official in ancient Rome chosen by the plebeians to protect their interests. 11.“Council of Elders”: Was a group that formed the Roman senate which introduced the Roman constitution. 12.“Christos”: meaning messenger in Ancient Rome from their early religion. 13.Roman Senate: was a political institution in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history. 14.Augustus: Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principe, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman senate. 15.Jesus: A jew from Galilee in northern Israel who sought to reform Jewish beliefs and practices. He was executed as a revolutionary by the Romans. 16.Paul: A Jew from the Greek city of Tarsus in Anatolia, he initially persecuted the followers of Jesus but after receiving revelation on the road to Syrian Damascus, became Christian. 17.Constantine: Roman emperor. After reuniting the Roman empire he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion. 18.Shi Huangdi: was the King of the state of Qin who conquered all other Warring States and united China in 221 BC. 19.Chang’an: is an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an 20.Palatine Hill: is the centermost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city 21.Latium: is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire 22.Gaul: was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, 23.Constantinople: was the capital city of the Roman, Byzantine, Latin, and Ottoman empires. 24.Roman Republic: was the period of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire 25.Qin: was the first imperial dynasty of China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC 26.Han: was an imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty 27.Byzantine Empire: was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages 28.Wars with Carthage (Punic Wars) – the results: wars fought between Ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic 29.Pax Romana: was the long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force experienced by the Roman Empire in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Since it was established by Augustus 30.“Third century crisis”: also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis, (AD 235–284) was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression. 31.“Warring States Period’’: is a period in ancient China following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the victory of the state of Qin in 221 BC, creating a unified China under the Qin dynasty. Questions to outline:
1. 1. Why did the Roman Republic fail? List reasons.
Because of economic troubles that led to the fall of the republic. It was because: Rome needed money to run, Elected officials were corrupt and Rome was riddled with crime. 2. List the characteristics of the Pax Romana.
The first of which was that there was no major wars. The empire was relatively peaceful. Because of this trade and commerce flourished bring prosperity to the empire in general and to Rome in particular. 3. Make a list of the major Roman achievements in technology. 1. The ancient Romans developed many new techniques for buildings and construction of all types including concrete, roman roads, roman arches, and aqueducts. 2. Public health programs and welfare. They made sure that all the people of Rome were able to get medical help. 3. Newspapers. Romans were known to contribute to public discourse through the use of official texts detailing military, legal and civil issues. 4. List the major values of Chinese Han society as influenced by Confucianism. The methods of testing for power and the focus of Chinese education on memorization all came from Confucius. Religion based on education. 5. List the major technological and trading achievements of the Han Chinese. The Hot Air Balloon
Stirrups (for horses)
Rudders for Ships.
They also developed a system of road called the silk road which was used for major trading