Psychology Midterm Notes

Topics: Brain, Neuron, Depth perception Pages: 9 (1082 words) Published: May 12, 2014
CH. 2 NEUROSCIENCE & BEHAVIOR

Part 1

I. Our Genetic Inheritance

Neuroscience: scientific study of the biology of behavior & mental processes Behavioral Genetics: study of the relative effects of heredity & environment on behavior & mental processes

Genes & DNA

-The nucleus of every cell contains genes, which carry the code for hereditary transmission

-Genes are arranged along chromosomes (strands of paired DNA).

Evolutionary Psychology: studies how natural selection & adaptation help explain behavior & mental processes Natural Selection: survival of the most advantageous gene!

Gene-Environment Interaction

Genes (Nature) vs. Environment (Nurture)

*TWINS: identical = 100% of shared genetic material
fraternal = 50% of shared genetic material

Heritability: the degree to which individual differences are a result of genetic, inherited factors rather than differences in the environment
- Ranges from 0% to 100%
- Can be determined by the use of:
—Family studies
-close vs. distant relatives vs. non-family members
—Twin studies
-identical vs. fraternal
—Adoption studies
-adopted vs. biological family

II. Neural Basis of Behavior (Brain)

Neural Bases of Psychology

-Our nervous system consists of neurons.
—cells responsible for receiving & conducting electrical impulses from the brain

The Structure of a Neuron

Dendrites: (antennas) that receive signals
Nucleus: (eyeball) cell body w/ DNA, source of signals dendrites pick up Axon
Myelin Sheath
Terminal Bottom

Neural Communication

-Within a neuron, communication results from an action potential.

**Electrical Terminal Process

-Receiving neurons receive multiple messages from other neurons


-These multiple messages then determine if an action…..

-Between neurons, communication occurs through transmission of neural information across a synapse by neurotransmitters.

**Receptor Sites
**Extra chemicals float around in the synapse, then “go back home” (reuptake) or “eaten” (enzymatic breakdown)

Endocrine System

-Hormones
—chemicals manufactured by endocrine glands & circulated in the bloodstream in the bloodstream to produce bodily changes or to maintain normal bodily function

-Why Do We Need Two Communication Systems—Neurotransmitters & Hormones?

Entire body- hormone
vs.
Specific- neurotransmitter

III. Nervous System Organization

-Anatomy & functions of the sympathetic (arouses) & parasympathetic (calms) nervous systems CH. 2 NEUROSCIENCE & BEHAVIOR

Part 2

BRAIN
ForebrainCerebral Cortex
Limbic System

Thalamus
Hypothalamus

Midbrain

Reticular
Activating
System

HindbrainMedulla
Pons
Cerebellum

A Tour Through the Brain:

—Cerebral Cortex - governs higher mental processes (problem solving, planning)

-cerebral cortex: thin surface layer on the left & right cerebral hemispheres; regulates most complex behavior, including sensations, motor control, & higher mental processes

-Lobes of the Cerebral

-frontal lobe
motor cortex (controls voluntary movement)
-parietal lobe
somatosensatory cortex (sensitive feelings)
-occipital lobe
visual cortex (heavily involved in what we see)
-temperal lobe
auditory cortex (specialized in hearing, speech)

—Lateralization - the left & right hemispheres specialize in particular (but often overlapping) operations

-left: (analytical, language based functions, controls right side of the body, right visual field) reading, writing, etc.

-right: (nonverbal abilities, symbolic, controls left side of the body, left visual field) music, creativity, etc.

—Limbic System - involved in emotions, drives, and memory

-interconnected group of forebrain structures involved with emotions, drives, & memory

—Lower-level brain structures:

Parts of the Forebrain

—Thalamus - integrates input from the senses (info. from 5 senses & travels to forebrain)

-relays sensory...
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