CH. 2 NEUROSCIENCE & BEHAVIOR
I. Our Genetic Inheritance
Neuroscience: scientific study of the biology of behavior & mental processes Behavioral Genetics: study of the relative effects of heredity & environment on behavior & mental processes
Genes & DNA
-The nucleus of every cell contains genes, which carry the code for hereditary transmission
-Genes are arranged along chromosomes (strands of paired DNA).
Evolutionary Psychology: studies how natural selection & adaptation help explain behavior & mental processes Natural Selection: survival of the most advantageous gene!
Genes (Nature) vs. Environment (Nurture)
identical = 100% of shared genetic material
fraternal = 50% of shared genetic material
Heritability: the degree to which individual differences are a result of genetic, inherited factors rather than differences in the environment
- Ranges from 0% to 100%
- Can be determined by the use of:
-close vs. distant relatives vs. non-family members
-identical vs. fraternal
-adopted vs. biological family
II. Neural Basis of Behavior (Brain)
Neural Bases of Psychology
-Our nervous system consists of neurons.
—cells responsible for receiving & conducting electrical impulses from the brain
The Structure of a Neuron
Dendrites: (antennas) that receive signals
Nucleus: (eyeball) cell body w/ DNA, source of signals dendrites pick up Axon
-Within a neuron, communication results from an action potential.
**Electrical Terminal Process
-Receiving neurons receive multiple messages from other neurons
-These multiple messages then determine if an action…..
-Between neurons, communication occurs through transmission of neural information across a synapse by neurotransmitters.
**Extra chemicals float around in the synapse, then “go back home” (reuptake) or “eaten” (enzymatic breakdown)
—chemicals manufactured by endocrine glands & circulated in the bloodstream in the bloodstream to produce bodily changes or to maintain normal bodily function
-Why Do We Need Two Communication Systems—Neurotransmitters & Hormones?
Entire body- hormone
III. Nervous System Organization
-Anatomy & functions of the sympathetic (arouses) & parasympathetic (calms) nervous systems CH. 2 NEUROSCIENCE & BEHAVIOR
A Tour Through the Brain:
—Cerebral Cortex - governs higher mental processes (problem solving, planning)
-cerebral cortex: thin surface layer on the left & right cerebral hemispheres; regulates most complex behavior, including sensations, motor control, & higher mental processes
-Lobes of the Cerebral
motor cortex (controls voluntary movement)
somatosensatory cortex (sensitive feelings)
visual cortex (heavily involved in what we see)
auditory cortex (specialized in hearing, speech)
—Lateralization - the left & right hemispheres specialize in particular (but often overlapping) operations
-left: (analytical, language based functions, controls right side of the body, right visual field) reading, writing, etc.
-right: (nonverbal abilities, symbolic, controls left side of the body, left visual field) music, creativity, etc.
—Limbic System - involved in emotions, drives, and memory
-interconnected group of forebrain structures involved with emotions, drives, & memory
—Lower-level brain structures:
Parts of the Forebrain
—Thalamus - integrates input from the senses (info. from 5 senses & travels to forebrain)
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