Concept tested: Theory’s of motivation
Page 399: Instinct theory is motivation based off of inherent automatic behavior. These occur consistently because of stimuli. This is how birds build nests perfectly as soon as they leave their family.
I chose A, Drive reduction theory. Drive reduction focuses on a homeostasis in the body. There are needs that ruin the equlibrium, and our brain responds to these with drives, a feeling that prompts action. This restores balance. This concept is wrong because Danielle makes her decision based off of herself a human being wanting to go to the more secure and safe person, which is instinct. The imbalance was not a part of this question.
Correct answer is C, Instinct.
5. Juan is obsessed with building up his bank balance, even though he is quite comfortable and prosperous now. One situation exemplifies the power of
Concept tested: Theory’s of motivation
Page 402/403 bottom right: Secondary drives are stimuli that achieve primary drives through learned mechanisms. This is usually characterized through money.
I chose C, homeostasis. Homeostasis is a state of equilibrium, with everything being equal. This has nothing to do with juan being obsess with building up his bank balance. His satisfaction by gaining more money isn’t being achieved so equilibrium is wrong.
Correct answer is B, secondary drives.
12. Tracy has recently been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Tracy is likely to display all the following except
Concept Tested: Eating Disorders
Page 411. People with anorexia nervosa normally do not think anything is wrong with their eating habits. They have perfectionist personalities, are obsessed with being thin and attractive, but find their actions and eating habits are not wrong. Anorexia is the act of starving in order to lose weight.
I chose answer A. This answer is completely wrong. People with anorexia have extreme perfectionist personalities. Every little detail about themselves seems wrong, and they strive to fix them.
Correct Answer is C. seeing her eating habits as problematic
23. Whit started to play the saxophone. He wants to get better at, so he watches the techniques of professional players and practices constantly. Whit does not care how he compares to other saxophone players, nor does he want to seek help from others. Whit appears to have adopted a(n)
Concept Tested: Need for achievement
Bottom 421, top of 422. Learning goals are when people adopt a mentality of going things to get better at them. Playing tennis, playing piano, do math, or fix cars, some people will do just to get better at them. People who do this watch others to get better and solve problems by themselves.
I chose answer b, avoidance-avoidance conflict. This is the concept, of having to choose between two undesirable conflicts. This would be such as going to detention or getting a speeding ticket. There is no good outcome. This has nothing to do with choosing to do an activity, especially playing the saxophone to get better at it.
Correct answer is D. Learning goal.
25. Melissa decides to risk her life but climbing Mount Everest in order to earn respect from other Mountain climbers. Melissa’s actions defy what theory of motivation?
Concept Tested: Theories of motivation
427. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a pyramid that shows what people need first in life and last. The primary things are food, water, and oxygen. The last is self-actualization.
I chose answer C, opponent process. Opponent-process theory. This says that our experience of emotions explains the relation of its opposites. Sometimes when we have pleasure, we have pain. When we have fear there is pleasure. This has nothing to do with choosing to climb a mountain. Opponent process has a reverse reaction, in this however there wasn’t.
Correct answer is C. Maslow’s hierarchy of motivation.
33. You are driving Down Main when a pedestrian runs in front of you. You swerve widely and only just miss him. After a few seconds, you notice that your heart is racing, your brow is wet with perspiration, your mouth is dry, and you are trembling. This reaction was activated by the blank nervous system
Concept Tested: Autonomic nervous system and response
68-69. There are three divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The parasympathetic system slows the heart rate down and calms things. The sympathetic system increases reactions in the body and increases heart rate.
I chose answer B, parasympathetic. The parasympathetic system slows the heart rate down and calms things. This is wrong and the exact opposite of sympathetic. The person in the question was getting more energized, not calm.
Correct answer is C. Sympathetic.
35. In a research study, participants were asked to rate the funniness of a cartoon while either just looking at it or holding a pencil with their teeth. Those who rated the cartoon while holding a pencil with their teeth rated cartoon as funnier. Since the facial muscles for a smile are similar to those required to hold a pencil in ones mouth, the results of this experiment support ____________ theory of the emotion.
Concept Tested: Theories of Emotion
Page 435. James periphery theory focuses says that emotion is not directly caused by the perception of an event but rather by the bodily response caused by the event. This means that, in order to experience emotion, we must first experience the bodily response (e.g., fast breathing, racing heart, sweaty hands) that corresponds to the emotion. If people are holding the pencil, then the muscles will make them happier in general
I chose d. Opponent process theory. This says that our experience of emotions explains the relation of its opposites. Sometimes when we have pleasure, we have pain. When we have fear there is pleasure. This has nothing to do with holding a pencil in the mouth. They are not opposite reactions.
Correct Answer is A. .