Manifesto of the Communist Party
I. Preface to the German Edition of 1872
a. Has been published in German, English, French, Polish, Russian, and Danish. b. The general principles laid down in the Manifesto are, on the whole, as correct today as ever. The application of the principles will depend on the historical conditions for the time being existing. c. The socialist literature is deficient as it stopped at 1847. d. The Manifesto has become a historical document which no one has any right to alter anymore. II. Preface to the Russian Edition of 1882
a. First Russian translation was published in the early 1860’s. b. This is a time in which Russia is considered the great reserve of all European reaction and the United States absorbed the surplus proletarian forces through immigration. c. Both countries, provided raw materials for the production in other countries and were also considered the market for sale of the products being created by those countries. d. The society of small farms are being taken over by large farms and a mass proletariat and a fabulous concentration of capitals are developing for the first time in the industrial regions. e. He ends with saying The Communist Manifesto had at its object of the proclamation the inevitably impending dissolution of modern bourgeois property. III. Preface to the German Edition of 1883
a. By the time this edition was done Marx had passed away. Engels signed this preface alone. b. He states that the basic thought running through the Manifesto belongs solely and exclusively to Marx. IV. Manifesto of the Communist Party
a. The spectre of Communism is haunting Europe.
b. He states that all the old powers have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this spectre. c. Two things result from this fact.
c.i. Communism is already acknowledged by all European Powers to be itself a Power. c.ii. It is high time that Communists should openly, in the face of the whole world, publish their views, their...
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