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Freshman Bio Final Study Guide

By gele213 Jun 19, 2013 1402 Words
BIO FINAL STUDY GUIDE
Scientific Method:
1) Observe something interesting
2) Educated idea = hypothesis (if – change/IV -… then – measure/DV… because) 3) Experiments
4) Analyze + conclude
5) Report it to world
Science| Pseudoscience|
-uses scientific method| -doesn’t use scientific method| -good hypothesis (falsifiable –provable)| -bad hypothesis (unfalsifiable)| -Repeatable + predictable| -unrepeatable|
-1 variable| -none or many variables|
-ex. Aliens, diets, monsters (big foot, loch ness)
* Good Graph: Measurement:
-density=mass/volume
-1 in=2.54 cm
-1 kg=2.2 lbs
-1 L=1.06
-Displacement method – submerge + measure water level distance -SURFACE AREA TO VOLUME RATIO 
SA/V decreases when object gets bigger
Surface area formula: h*b*6 (units^2)

BASIC CHEMISTRY
Importance of valance electrons: determines how an atom will bond Protons (+) = atomic number * Electrons (neutral) = # of protons
Neutrons (-) = atomic weight - # of protons
Ion: atom that gained or lost electrons (cation = positive, anion = negative) Atom: smallest part of an element (all chemical properties of an element) Isotope: same number of protons but different number of neutrons

-Ex. Carbon14 instead of carbon12 – 6 protons and 8 neutrons Covalent bond: sharing (3,4,5 rows)
Ionic bond: stealing (closest to 8 or 0)
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Organic molecule: carbon and hydrogen
4 types of organic macromolecules: carbohydrate, lipid, protein, nucleic acid Monomer: one piece
Polymer: many pieces
Hydrolysis- (H20 is needed) catabolic- to break *

Dehydration synthesis/polymerization-(makes longer polymer) Anabolic: to build *
CAPT enzyme lab: RESULTS
IV: type of enzyme
DV: amount of apple sauce filtered
Variables: amount of apple sauce, amount of enzyme
Control: water
Enzymes: pectinase and cellulase
THE CELL
Cell theory:
1. All living things are made up of cells
2. Cells are the fundamental units of life
3. Cells come from other cells
Viruses alive?
-NO. On their own they can do nothing until they enter a living cell. Without cells, viruses would not be able to multiply.  Prokaryotic| Same| Eukaryotic|
Bacteria/Archea| DNA| Animals, fungi, plants, protists|
No nucleus| Ribosomes| nucleus|
unicellular| cytoplasm| multicellular|
Virus-smallest prokaryotic-middle eukaryotic-biggest
MOLECULAR MOTION
Aerobic: energy needed
Anaerobic: no energy needed
Concentration gradient: unequal distribution of ions across the cell membrane (movement called diffusion) Passive transport: movement from high concentration to low concentration (no energy needed) 1) Diffusion-general (movement of any molecule)

-ex. Sugar dissolving into coffee cup
2) Osmosis- specific (movement of only one specific molecule) -ex. Salt sucking water *
Isotonic- (good) a solution with no effect on the passage of water in or out of the cell * Hypertonic- (bad) a solution that causes the cell to lose water * Hypotonic- (bad) a solution which causes the cell to take up water * Active transport: the movement of a substance across a membrane against its concentration gradient (requires energy/ATP and specific transport proteins) -Endocytosis-the process in which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell -active transport(in) – entering cell (ATP)
-phagocytosis – cell eating
-pinocytosis – cell drinking
-Exocytosis- the process in which a cell releases a particle by enclosing the particle in a vesicle that then moves to the cell surface and fuses with the cell membrane -active transport(out) – exiting the cell (ATP)

-waste, valuable ex. pensin
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Energy flow (constant conversion of energy): light energy chemical energy (glucose) chemical energy (ATP) used to do work lost as heat 1st law of thermodynamics (law of conservation of energy):

-energy is changed from one form to another
-neither created nor destroyed
- in photosynthesis, light energy is transferred into food energy 2nd law of thermodynamics:
-potential energy is always less than initial state
-As energy is transferred from one form to another, some is lost as heat Photosynthesis: the absorption of light and the transfer of energy and electrons
-in thylakoid of chloroplasts
Chemical formula: 6H2O + 6CO2 -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Carbon dioxide + water -> sugars + oxygen
Endergonic: stores energy
Exergonic: releases energy
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
Aerobic: oxygen reguired
Combustion: rapid release of energy
fuel + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water
Fuel = carbon compounds (organic) ex. wood
Cellular respiration: chemical reaction that makes energy (gentle form of combustion)
-mitochondria
Food + oxygen -> slow burn
Fermentation: yeast/bacteria without oxygen to make food and alcohol/ethanol (CO2 as waste)
-few ATP
-humans use lactic acid fermentation while yeast use ethanol fermentation -no oxygen available so the muscle gets small amount of energy (ATP) through fermentation of lactic acid  CELL CYCLE
Cell plate
Cell plate

Differentiated cell: cell that is specialized
Undifferentiated cell: cells not specialized – could become anything STEM CELLS Totipotent: can form all cell types in body (embryo)
Pluripotent: cells that make up the body
MEIOSIS
MITOSIS| MEIOSIS|
-can happen all over body| -Only in ovary/testes|
-makes clones/copies| -makes half cells (not copy)|
-46 chromosomes| -23 chromosomes|
-diploid (4) (normal number) (2N)| -haploid (2) (half number) (N)|

Crossing over: mixes up DNA = new comb. , mutation
-results in diversity
-prophase 1
Non-disjunction: during meiosis when the chromosomes fail to separate normally
- gametes with more than or less than the usual number of chromosomes.
DNA
3 components of a DNA nucleotide (the monomer):
Nitrogen base
Nitrogen base
sugar
sugar
phosphate
phosphate

Ms. Franklin: x-ray picture to see double helix DNA
Watson and Crick: discovered structure of DNA (double helix)
-saw Franklin’s photo and received Nobel peace prize
Semi-conservative: When two strands become four strands after replication, then each double helix has one new and one old strand. This means that newly formed double helix is half new and half old

GENE EXPRESSION
| DNA| RNA|
Sugar| Deoxyribose| Ribose|
Bases| A, T, C, G| A, U, C, G|
Structure| Double stranded| Single stranded|
Function| | |
Location| Nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts| Nucleolus, ribosomes|

Type of RNA| Full name of RNA| Location| Job|
mRNA| Messenger RNA| Nucleus + cytoplasm| copy the coded message from the DNA and carries it into the cytoplasm| tRNA| Transfer RNA| Cytoplasm| Delivers amino acids to ribosomes| rRNA| Ribosomal RNA| Ribosome| Makes up ribosomes|

DNA -> mRNA -> amino acid -> protein
Transcription: the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template (DNA -> mRNA)
-in nucleus
Translation: synthesis of a protein from an mRNA template (mRNA -> amino acid -> protein)
-ribosome
- Genetic disorders -
Chromosomal aberrations: an abnormality in the structure or number of chromosomes
-nondisjunction: not separating properly during meiosis (gamete gets too few or too many chromosomes
- down syndrome (trisomy 21): 3 Xs
-turner’s (monosomy X): female, sterile (1 X)
-klinefelters (XXY): males, sterile
Karyotype: characterization of chromosomes
Gene mutations: a permanent change in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene
-Change in DNA sequence leads to change in amino acid sequence: the product will have slightly different chemical and structural properties from before and may not function correctly (cause the protein to denature (lose its shape) or lose its catalytic activity)

Vector:  A vehicle (e.g. a plasmid) used to transfer the DNA sequences from the donor organism to the target cell of the recipient organism. Plasmid: extra-chromosomal DNA molecule capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA Transgenic organism: organism whose genetic characteristics have been altered using the techniques of genetic engineering. INHERITANCE

Monohybrid= 2 on each dihybrid= 4 on each
Incomplete dominance: pink flowers
Co dominance: spots
Polygenic: trait controlled by many genes ex. Human eyes EVOLUTION
Darwin: nature will select the best suited to survive
Lamark: acquired a characteristic overtime and passed it on to offspring Sources of variations in living things: mutations, crossing over, transposons Evidence: paleontology (fossils), comparative anatomy (finger bones), geographic distribution (pangea)

Earth is 4.54 billion years (Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic) 3.5 billion years ago - prokaryotic cells
2.3 billion years ago - oxygen
-punctuated equilibrium:  evolutionary change came in fits and starts rather than in a steady process of slow change POPULATION DYNAMICS
Density dependent factors: limiting factor where large, dense populations are more strongly affected than small, less crowded ones Density independent factors: environmental limiting factors affecting a population regardless of size Linear Logistic Exponential

Calculated popn. Size = M * (CwM + Cw/oM)
CwM
HUMAN GROWTH
Acid rain pollutants: sulfur dioxide (SO.) (NO.)
ECOLOGY
Bio geo chemical cycles: a chemical cycles between abiotic and biotic environment
-the carbon cycle: CO2 is inorganic -> photosynthesis - turned into glucose for the tree (organic) -> respiration turns organic to inorganic
-the water cycle (H2O)
-nitrogen cycle (N2)
-phosphate cycle (phosphorus)
QUESTIONS
2 things made from 6 carbon glucose molecule: CO2 and H2O
How animals and plants exchange molecules: carbon cycle
Organism fixing carbon from inorganic to organic: autotrophs/heterotrophs

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