Business research chapter 6-10

Topics: Scientific method, Qualitative research, Quantitative research Pages: 8 (4586 words) Published: October 23, 2014

Chapter 6:
Exploratory studies: Exploratory have loose structures with the objective of discovering future research tasks. The immediate purpose of exploration is usually to develop hypotheses or questions for further research. Formal studies: The formal study continues the exploratory study. It begins with a hypothesis or research question and involves precise procedures and data source specifications. The goal of a formal research design is to test the hypotheses or answer the research questions posed. Both of these definitions are taken from the textbook. b)

Experiments: In experiments the researcher can manipulate or control the variables or at least one of the variables. Ex post facto research design: Here does the researcher have no control over the variables. The researcher can only report what he sees or what is happening. c)

Descriptive: This kind of study investigate the questions who, what, where, when, or how much. Causal studies: In the causal studies on the other hand the researcher try to explain the relationship among or between variables. The researcher also looks at how the different variables affect each other. a)

Causality is more likely to happen if you use the inductive method because this method is based on few observations where as the deductive method is based on a general theory. Therefore the deductive method is better to avoid causality. b)

Because you don’t have tested theory or rule to base your research on when you use induction. c)
Here is an example of correlation, which does not imply causation: Height is correlated to income. You might find studies, which imply that tall people earn more money than not so tall people, but does this makes it thru? No, you can say that there are any causation between height and income. a)

Stimulus response: If the price on beer increases I would substitute it for wine. Property-disposition: When I get older I will probably earn more money and would start saving more of my money than I do now. Disposition-behavior: If I’m happy at my workplace I produce more and am more efficient. Property-Behavior: As I grown older I have stopped playing football and started at playing golf. Because when we use variables we have the option to manipulate or control them in the way we intent and by that we can research questions and results we couldn’t investigate if we had to many control variables. a)

They are similar in the way that both designs can be used to se if there are any causal relationships between variables. b)
The experimental design allow the researcher to control the variables, this is a good way to see if certain variables affects other variables. With the ex post facto design the researcher lack control of the variables and should be careful about affecting the result and creating a bias. In this design the researcher is supposed to follow a strict statistic and sampling procedures. You can setup a study looking at the causation between training hours and deaths. By doing this you might find causation and you hopefully find out how much training volunteers need to minimize deaths. In this case you can do a survey among the guests at the hotel, asking them different questions about their experience at the hotel. Another way of perceiving this case is by a observation study among the employees. We would need a hidden observer, so the employees act as natural and normal as possible. The observer might cause some sort of bias, so we have to be careful with an observation study with a hidden observer. A third approach to this problem is to look at the behavior of the hotel guests by recording the guests’ information in hotel’s database. By doing this we can see if the guests return to the hotel and if there are any causation between special employees and non-returning guests. Here the index of Consumer Confidence is the DV because it depends on the business cycle, which is the IV. The hypothesis is: The business cycle affects the...
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