To be proficient in research, one must know language and process. During this assignment, you will familiarize yourself with research terminology as you use the terms to write your paper.
Prepare a 1,050- to 1,750-word paper in which you describe the research process. Include the following:
Include new terminology learned from the reading.
How will this new terminology and knowledge apply to a career in criminal justice? How can not knowing the proper terminology affect you as you conduct criminal justice research? How will knowing these terms be an asset to you when evaluating and analyzing research studies or data? Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.
Research Process and Terminology
Research Process and Terminology
Different research methods used today play a very important role in the criminal justice system. Using effective methods gives people the ability to open and close cases. People interested in the criminal justice field have the ability to use wide ranges of research methods at their disposal. The research process consists of multiple steps and sub-steps for an effective outcome. For an accurate result, one must try to avoid biases and pursue accuracy in his or her research to produce an accurate result. The research process begins with a theory. According to Hagan (2010), theories “are usually general or broad statements regarding the relationship between variables (p. 16). A theory does not necessarily have to have proof to back it up, following steps in the research process can give credence to a theory and may be able to prove the theory to be fact. A theory can transition into a hypothesis, which according to Hagan (2010), “are specific statements regarding the relationship between variables and are derived from more general theories” (p. 16). The next steps in the research process are research design and data gathering (Hagan, 2010). A researcher can choose between an experimental and a non-experimental approach, whether to examine individuals or groups of people, and the amount of time dedicated to examining them. Before evaluating groups or individuals, one must determine the sampling available to him or her. A person conducting research on who likes the color red may use a convenience sampling of participants by simply asking people he or she meets directly “do you like the color red?” A researcher can also study each participant randomly selected in a cluster sample. Data gathering can involve numerous methods such as an Observational Study approach, in which he or she measures characteristics of the subjects of the study, however, refraining from manipulating or attempting to change the characteristics of the subjects. Other options include Retrospective Study collection, Systematic Sampling, and Stratified Sampling. Upon conducting a retrospective study, it is important to credit the source, and avoid plagiarism. The final step in the process is submitting the conclusion or findings, in which the researcher states his or her findings, and the results he or she thinks the study reveals (Hagan, 2010). It is important for agents in the criminal justice field to understand the concepts of the research process. Law enforcement agents routinely go through the research process. Officers may have a specific, drawn-out process in which to capture would-be offenders. Other times, officers go through this process when on patrol. An officer on patrol may see some suspicious activity and form a hypothesis and a person or situation seems “out of place.” The officer may use convenience sampling by questioning people nearby (Bennett, Briggs, & Triola, 2009), such as the general geographical area, or his or her confidential informant. After the officer gathers his or her information, the officer may speak directly to the suspect, (data collection), take the suspect into custody (analysis and presentation of findings), and file applicable charges...
References: Bennett, J. O., Briggs, W. L., & Triola, M. F. (2009). Statistical reasoning for everyday life (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Addison Wesley.
Hagan, F. E. (2010). Research methods in criminal justice and criminology (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Schmalleger, F. (2012). Criminology today: An integrative introduction (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
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