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AWARENESS OF THE CYBERCRIME LAW AMONG CRIMINOLOGY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ILOILO– PHINMA

By pingeuris14 Feb 03, 2014 6183 Words
AWARENESS OF THE CYBERCRIME LAW AMONG CRIMINOLOGY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ILOILO– PHINMA

A Research Paper

Presented to
The Faculty of the College of Criminal Justice
University of Iloilo - PHINMA Education Network

In partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Course
CM 070 - Criminological Research and Statistics
by
April Joy Sirue
Jet Charles Yson
Nelu Garete
Erald Pedroso
Ela-Mae Salmon
Rexsie Penado
Teopisto Ralph Ramos
Alquisada, Samuel
October 2013
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Chapter 1
Introduction
Background of the Study
Nowadays, many people are using the Internet for the purpose of entertainment, studies, communication and businesses. But on the other hand, people abuse the use of Internet like cybersex, cyber-squatting, child pornography, cyber terrorism, libel and cyber bullying. If we judge by the number of news reports on the subject, computer-based crimes are a growing problem. Recently, the Philippine Congress passed a bill into law, the cybercrime law, which prohibits the use of the internet for cybersex, child pornography, cyber terrorism, libel, cyber bullying and such crimes as may be related to the internet.

The growing danger from crimes committed against computers, or against information on computers, is beginning to claim attention in national capitals. In most countries around the world, however, existing laws are likely to be unenforceable against such crimes. This lack of legal protection means that businesses and governments must rely solely on technical measures to protect themselves from those who would steal, deny access to, or destroy valuable information. The internet, as we know, has grown rapidly over the last decade. It has given rise to many avenues in every field we can think of – be it education, entertainment, business, or sports. However with every boon there is a curse too. This curse is Cybercrime – illegal activities committed over the internet. The 2

internet, along with its advantages, has also exposed us to security risks. Computers today are being misused for unlawful activities like e-mail espionage, credit card fraud, spam, software piracy, spreading of viruses and so on, which invade our privacy and offend our senses. Criminal activities over the internet are on the rise. Cybercrime is a term used broadly to describe criminal activity in which computers or networks are a tool, a target, or a place of criminal activity. These categories are not exclusive and many activities can be characterized as falling in one or more categories. Although the term cybercrime is usually restricted to describing criminal activity in which the computer or network is an essential part of the crime, this term is also used to include traditional crimes in which computers or networks are used to enable the illicit activity.    Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to find out the level of awareness on the Cybercrime Law of criminology students of University of Iloilo-PHINMA, school year 2013-2014. Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions: 1. What is the level of awareness on the Cybercrime law of Criminology students when they are grouped according to age, year level and economic status?

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2. Is there a significant difference on the level of awareness of criminology students when there are grouped according to age, year level and economic status? Hypothesis
There is no significant difference on the level of awareness of criminology students when there are grouped according to age, year level and economic status. Significance of the Study
This study would be beneficial to the following:
Criminology students. This study would help the criminology students to be more aware of the Cybercrime Law. School Administrators. This would help the school administrators to have some baseline data on the students’ level of knowledge and awareness of the Cybercrime Law for decision-making purposes.

School. This would help the school in providing opportunities for the students and teachers to increase their knowledge and awareness of the Cybercrime Law.
Future Researchers. The findings of the study would enrich the body of literature on the Cybercrime Law, thus helping the general public, particularly future researchers to have some empirical evidences for reference purposes. Scope and Delimitation

The main objective of this study was to determine the level of awareness of Criminology students of University of Iloilo-PHINMA on the Cybercrime 4
Law. Therefore, the study only focused on the Criminology students of the University of Iloilo-PHINMA Education Network and their level of awareness on the subject matter. No other aspects of the Cybercrime Law were included in the study.

The study was conducted in September and October, 2013.
Theoretical Framework
The book review of James Bowers, Jr. on, “Cybercrime: How to Avoid Becoming a Victim” by H. Thomas Milhorn educates its readers about the different types of cybercrimes and the ways in which internet users can protect them from becoming victims. Special emphasis in this book is given to defining what constitutes each type of crime, poignant examples of actual crimes, and finally, useful tips for protecting oneself from each type of crime. The chapters cover a broad range of topics - auction fraud, job scams, charity scams, child pornography, copyright violation, cramming and slamming, credit card fraud, credit repair scams, cyber bullying, and cyber extortion. Also, immigration fraud, investment fraud, laptop theft, loan scams, lottery scams, Nigerian fraud, overpayment scams, predatory scams, predatory behavior, pyramid schemes, prostitution, sales fraud, and spam, are dealt. Lastly, travel scam, viruses, and hoaxes are discussed. In a nutshell, the book covers all the types of cybercrime and ways to avoid being a victim.

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Research Paradigm

Figure 1. The Schematic Diagram of the Study

Definition of Terms
In order to facilitate proper understanding and clarity in this study, the following terms are defined conceptually and operationally: Cybercrime Law
The Cybercrime Law or the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012. This refers to a statute officially recorded as Republic Act No. 10175 enacted by the Congress in the Philippines, approved on 12 September 2012. It aims to address

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legal issues concerning online interactions and the Internet in the Philippines. Among the cybercrime offenses included in the law are cyber squatting, cybersex, child pornography, identity theft, illegal access to data and libel(Wikipedia). In this study, this refers to the above mentioned law, subject to the level of awareness of the criminology students. Law. This refers to a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior. Laws are made by governments, specifically by their legislatures. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution (written or unwritten) and the rights encoded therein (Wikipedia). In this study, law refers to the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012. Awareness. It means the state or ability to perceive, to feel, or to be conscious of events, objects, or sensory patterns (Wikipedia). In this study, it refers to the ability of the criminology students to be familiar with the Cybercrime Law. Cybercrime. This refers to any criminal activity that uses a computer either as an instrumentality target, or a means of perpetuating further crimes (Duggal, 2000). In this study, this refers to the crime committed by persons related to computer. University of Iloilo-PHINMA Education Network. This refers to one of the educational institutions in Iloilo City. 7

In this study, this refers to the school where the study was conducted. Economic Status. This refers to what is commonly conceptualized as the social standing or class of an individual or group. In this study, it refers to the monthly income of the family of the respondents.

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Chapter 2
Review of Related Literature
Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012
According to Wikipedia, the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012, officially recorded as Republic Act No. 10175, is a law in the Philippines approved on 12 September 2012. It aims to address legal issues concerning online interactions and the Internet in the Philippines. Among the cybercrime offenses included in the law are cyber squatting, cybersex, child pornography, identity theft, illegal access to data and libel. While hailed for penalizing illegal acts done via the internet that were not covered by old laws, the act has been criticized for its provision on criminalizing libel, which is perceived to be a curtailment in freedom of expression. On October 9, 2012, the Supreme Court of the Philippines issued a temporary restraining order, stopping the implementation of the Act for 120 days, and extended it on 5 February 2013 "until further orders from the court." Purpose of the Cybercrime Law

According to Hart (2000) in his work “ The Concept of Law”, ‘human beings are vulnerable so rule of law is required to protect them’. Applying this to the cyberspace we may say that computers are vulnerable so rule of law is required to protect and safeguard them against cybercrime. The reasons for the vulnerability of computers may be said to be:

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First, its capacity to store data in comparatively small space. The computer has unique characteristic of storing data in a very small space. This affords to remove or derive information either through physical or virtual medium which makes it much easier.  Second, its being easy to access. The problem encountered in guarding a computer system from unauthorized access is that there is every possibility of breach not due to human error but due to the complex technology. By secretly implanted logic bomb, key loggers that can steal access codes, advanced voice recorders; retina imagers etc. that can fool biometric systems and bypass firewalls can be utilized to get past many a security system. Third, its being complex. The computers work on operating systems and these operating systems in turn are composed of millions of codes. Human mind is fallible and it is not possible that there might not be a lapse at any stage. The cyber criminals take advantage of these lacunas and penetrate into the computer system. Fourth, the factor of negligence.  Negligence is very closely connected with human conduct. It is therefore very probable that while protecting the computer system there might be any negligence, which in turn provides a cyber criminal to gain access and control over the computer system. Fifth, loss of evidence.  Loss of evidence is a very common and obvious problem as all the data are routinely destroyed. Further collection of data outside the territorial extent also paralyzes this system of crime investigation. 10

Effect of Cybercrime
The challenge of crime to society changes with the advance of civilization, particularly as technology continues to improve. According to Crowe (2002), advancing technology can bring greater opportunity and human comforts, at the same time, it also introduces to cyber related crimes. What is cybercrime? According to Pavan Duggal (2000) one of the pioneers in the field of cyber law , any criminal activity that uses a computer either as an instrumentality, target or a means for perpetuating further crimes comes within the ambit of cybercrime. The major reason behind this cyber bullying is to blame the target, release out hatred, anger or frustration. Examples of cyber bullying include mean text messages or emails, rumors sent by email or posted on social networking sites, and embarrassing pictures, videos, websites, or fake profiles. Nowadays, cyber bullying can happen even though through online gaming. Timbuong (2012) who is one of the The Star newspaper reporter reported that cybercriminals have already infiltrated the cyber gaming sphere. He also stated that cyber bullying happen through online game when a better player harasses other players by charging with comments or manipulating the game. In other words, cyber pornography can be posted as one of the cybercrimes too. It could be said to be the ugliest risk to the woman. Pornography on the internet is offered in different formats. These ranges from pictures and short dynamic movies, to sound files and stories. For example, the laying of the public Internet as we know that today 11

provided a brand new type of communication, virtually clear, and naturally, as with nearly every other form of communication, has been abused by pornography. The Phenomena of Cybercrime
Most reports, guides or publications on cybercrime begin by defining the terms “computer crime” and “cybercrime”. In this context, various approaches have been adopted in recent decades to develop a precise definition for both terms. Before providing an overview of the debate and evaluating the approaches, it is useful to determine the relationship between “cybercrime” and “computer-related crimes”. Without going into detail at this stage, the term “cybercrime” is narrower than computer related crimes as it has to involve a computer network. Computer-related crimes cover even those offences that bear no relation to a network, but only affect stand-alone computer systems. During the 10th United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, two definitions were developed within a related workshop: Cybercrime in a narrow sense (computer crime) covers any illegal behavior directed by means of electronic operations that target the security of computer systems and the data processed by them. Cybercrime in a broader sense (computer-related crimes) covers any illegal behavior committed by means of, or in relation to, a computer system or network, including such crimes as illegal possession and offering or distributing information by means of a computer system or network. One common definition describes cybercrime as any activity in which computers or networks are a tool, a target or a place of criminal 12

activity. There are several difficulties with this broad definition. It would, for example, cover traditional crimes such as murder, if perchance the offender used a keyboard to hit and kill the victim. Another broader definition is provided in Article 1.1 of the Stanford Draft International Convention to Enhance Protection from Cyber Crime and Terrorism (the “Stanford Draft”), which points out that cybercrime refers to acts in respect to cyber systems. Republic Act 10175 a.k.a. the “Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012″, an act defining cybercrimes and providing penalties, investigation, or suppression and other purposes, has now come to take effect amidst various protests for either abolition or revision. Freedom of expression is considered as the bedrock of democracy. Democracy without it is either futile or farcical. The 1987 Philippine Constitution protects and ensures the freedom of expression “somewhat” untouchable by upholding it in such a way that “there shall be no law passed abridging the freedom of expression”. But, is this meant to be absolute? No. The Cybercrime law that has become infamous because it contained alleged defective provisions, which were considered either “too broad” or “too vague”, categorically deserves modifications or improvements. However, the purpose of such law remains reasonable, timely, and should be upheld. There is nothing unconstitutional in the particular law except for a specific, clearer definition and identification of what is libel all about when committed in various social networking sites or in the cyber space, generally, since the law does not 13

mention the specific definition and coverage instead of the broad definition of libel. Moreover, criminalizing libel is inconsistent with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Furthermore, to begin criminalizing libel is akin to start silencing people critical to the government and in the process is killing democracy, stubbornly! Generally, the Constitution is frameworked in accordance to the common good or to serve the general welfare of the people. With respect to the freedom of expression, the framers of the Constitution might have categorically defied in their agreed understanding that this particular civil liberty shall be exercised to serve the common good of the people by promoting a healthy, constructive, free-flow of ideas. Thus, the provision generally insists on the healthy free-flow of ideas or collectively called freedom of expression. Ergo, this provision can never be absolute, thus, it can be regulated as circumstances may call it. For who among us could afford to let others trample on our rights and disrespect the sanctity of being human? Nobody. Related Case Studies on Cybercrime Law

Quoting the 2001 Budapest Convention on Cybercrime, the primer said there were four types of cybercrime — offenses against the confidentiality, integrity and availability of computer data systems; computer-related offenses; content-related offenses and offenses related to infringements of copyright and related rights.

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The primer also noted that the first cybercrime case in the country was the controversial case involving Onel de Guzman who in 2000 released the “I Love You” virus. “The case filed against De Guzman was dismissed at the first stage because there was no law punishing the deed as of that time in May 2000 in the Philippines,” it said. The primer also said that two cybercriminals had been convicted for hacking under Republic Act no. 8792 or the Electronic Commerce Act or the E-Commerce Act. The first conviction involved a person caught hacking the government portal gov.ph and other government websites while the other involved a person who used the Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) call center provider Sitel Philippines Corporation to illegally secure credit card information from the company’s sister firm, Sitel USA. Since the new law against cybercrime has been suspended, the government is dealing with cybercrime-related cases using existing laws such as the E-Commerce Act, RA 9995 or the Anti-Photo and Voyeurism Act of 2009, RA 9725 or the Anti-Child Pornography Act of 2009, RA 9208 or the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003, RA 8484 or the Access Device Regulation Act of 1998 and RA 4200 or the Anti-Wire Tapping Law. Brief History of Cybercrime Law

The Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012 is the first law in the Philippines which specifically criminalizes computer crime, which prior to the 15
passage of the law had no strong legal precedent in Philippine jurisprudence. While laws such as the Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 (Republic Act No. 8792) regulated certain computer-related activities, these laws did not provide a legal basis for criminalizing crimes committed on a computer in general: for example, Onel de Guzman, the computer programmer charged with purportedly writing the ILOVEYOU computer worm, was ultimately not prosecuted by Philippine authorities due to a lack of legal basis for him to be charged under existing Philippine laws at the time of his arrest. Some Cybercrime Law Theories

Arousal Theory
Stimuli provided by computer-enable gaming machines, especially those located in noisy, busy environments with many conflicting sources of stimuli, may lead to cognitive overload, negating people of their surroundings and ability to make rational decisions. Arousal theory is a trait theory that posits that people prefer a level of arousal which if not maintained leads to their committing crime, even though people vary on how they process environmental stimulation. South Korea is a very connected nation, with more than half of its population of approximately 50 million people having access to the internet. More than 10 million koreans now have high-speed connection to the internet. Many of the nation’s 25,000 internet cafes, also known as “PC room” or “PC bangs”, are open 24 hours. On October 9, 2002, South Korean police responded to an internet café call to investigate the 16

death of Kim Kyung-Jae, a 24 year old man who witnesses said had been playing computer games almost non-stop for 84 hours with no decent sleep or food. Evidently Kyung-Jae had become transfixed on gaming to the point that he neglected his bodily needs, which led to his death. Social Process Theory

Social process theories of crime are predicated on the idea that people do or do not commit crime as an indirect consequence of how they were raised, educated, and acculturated in society. According to perspective, the nature and extent of a person’s familial and other social bonds( having caring and nurturing parents and supporting relationship with friends and being involved in school clubs, religious groups, or other types of guiding organizations) determine whether people behave in socially acceptable and responsible ways or become abusive or criminal. As a major category of criminological explanations for crime, social process theories, including the one described in the chapter, are among those best supported with imperical research findings. As a result, most criminologists have high reguard for social process theories and their potential. Importance for developing public policies and programs aimed at preventing crime. In other words, according to the social process perspective, effective reduction of crime can be achieved with policies and programs that promote responsible parenting, development of moral responsibility, concern for community wellness and so on.

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Neutralization Theory
All states and the federal government now have computer crime laws, and most people understand that software piracy, unauthorized downloading of copyrighted songs and movies, email spamming , and hacking into computer systems, among other types of computing activities, are illegal. Even so, students who arrive at college with a weak sense of computer ethics and moral standards regarding usage of computers and other IT devices may be significantly influenced by new friends, roommates, older students, and social groups to use such devices in ways that are unethical, abusive, and/or criminal. Neutralization theory offers a sound explanation for certain types of cybercrime such as pirating music, movies, or software because offenders need not personally confront their victims and because there is often nothing tangible other than a keyboard and storage media that they can or must touch since they cannot see the internet or the people who create content victims if they are contemplated at all because faceless entities compute system or perhaps corporation rather than real people whose livelihoods and well-being are compromised as the result of copyright infringement. The same holds true for other types of IT-enabled crime such as web vandalism, distributing malware, launching DoS attacks, and so on. Similarly, a person who uses a computer to commit fraud or identity theft or steal money from another person’s bank account sees nothing more than their own computer and content on a screen, not the results of harm inflicted on either the account holder, banking personnel, investor in the banking institution, or tax 18

payer, who must ultimately foot the bill under federal deposit insurance corporation (FDIC) rules. Social Structure Theory
In social structure perspective of criminology, unequal and distribution of wealth are fundamental to explaining why crime is committed by certain individuals and manifests as it does throughout society. Social structure theories take into account all the elements of the preceding categories of theories but also emphasize larger societal factors such as safe and affordable housing, receiving a good education, earning a good living, having access to quality health care, and being treated fairly by the criminal justice. Social structure theorists argue that some people may be driven to commit crime if they cannot access, achieve, or maintain sufficient levels of these things. Thus, people who are need of necessities, or who desire more money, status, or the prestige derived from acquiring expensive items may illegally use computer systems to get what they think they need or deserve. Summary

For many involved in a criminal opaque, cybercrime is a curse in the 21st century. Several large criminal networks straddling the world are at present keenly involved in cybercrimes of one type or the other. The possibilities of potential earnings over the internet are roughly unlimited and the reasonable securities which the Internet sources provide are not sufficient to catch these criminals. Victims increase daily, but things were not like this always. 19

During the ancient days of cybercrimes the universe of cybercrime was observed as a harmless trick by computer geeks presenting how much they understood about the workings of all the computer networks.

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Chapter 3
Methodology
Research Design
This study used the non-experimental design. According to Lasley (1999),non-experimental design, particularly survey design, is good for conducting cross-sectional studies for purposes of describing subjects, groups, or objects of research. In this study, the respondents were described in terms of their age, year level and the economic conditions of their respective families, specifically indicated by their monthly income. Respondents

The respondents of this study were 60 criminology students from the College of Criminal Justice of University of Iloilo-PHINMA Education Network, for the school year 2013-2014. Respondents were classified according to their age, year level and their family’s economic status. Data Gathering Instrument

The researchers constructed a researcher-made questionnaire to measure the level of awareness of cybercrime law of the respondents. According to Merriam, a questionnaire includes planned statements or queries on any given topic, usually designed for submission to a large number of persons for the purpose on eliciting information about their opinions, attitudes, or behavior. 21

The researchers conducted a review of literature related to awareness of cybercrime law in some books and internet websites which were used in designing items included in the questionnaire that would reflect the awareness of the students. The questionnaire was composed of two parts. Part I includes the personal information about the respondents such as Name (optional), age, year level, and monthly income of their families. For confirmation and verification, the data listed above were verified through the students’ class adviser. Part II was the Questionnaire Proper on Awareness of Cybercrime Law. The questionnaire on students’ awareness was composed of 15 statements. The responses were used to diagnose the general awareness of criminology students and were classified and weighed as “Strongly Agree” (5), “Agree” (4). “Maybe” (3), “Disagree’’ (2), ‘’Strongly Disagree’’ (1). To interpret the scores, the following scales and corresponding description was used. Scale Description 3.67 – 5.00 Highly Aware 2.34 – 3.66 Moderately Aware 1.00 – 2.33 Poorly Aware

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Validity of the Questionnaire
The initial draft of the questionnaire was submitted by the researchers to their thesis adviser for comments, corrections, and possible refinements. After it was improved, the test instrument was subjected to face and content validation by the panel of experts composed of three instructors from the College of Criminal Justice, University of Iloilo.. According to Merriam, as cited by Calderon and Gonzales (1993), the content validity of a test is the degree to which the items of that test compose the representative sample of the content universe and/or behavior of the domain being assessed. Reliability of the Questionnaire

The questionnaire was subjected to reliability through the split-half method. For this purpose 10 students who were not among the respondents to the study, but had the same qualifications, were asked to answer the questionnaire. The questionnaire, duly accomplished, were analyzed the scores of the respondents in the odd questions were correlated with their scores in the even questions with the use of the Spearman rho. The results of .66 was subjected to the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula which yielded an µ of 0.7951807, suggesting a high consistency for the questionnaire.

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Data Gathering Procedure
Consequently, with the permission from the Dean of College of Criminal Justice of UI-PEN, the researchers administered the questionnaire to the respondents of the study. Respondents were reminded to answer the questionnaire honestly. The directions were read and explained to the students carefully to ensure that they understood what they were supposed to do. After the retrieval of the questionnaires, the responses were evaluated, coded, tallied and computed. Statistical Tools

Based on the questions raised and the corresponding hypothesis, the researchers used the frequency, mean, T-test and one way analysis of variance (one way ANOVA) as statistical tools.

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Chapter 4
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
The Respondents of the Study
Tables 1, 2, and 3 present the profile of the respondents of the study. Table 1 presents and discusses the age of the respondents; Table 2, their year level; and Table 3, their monthly income of their family. Table 1

Distribution of Respondents according to Age
Age of Respondents

f
%
Young (20 years old and below)

40
66.7
Young Adult (21 – 2 3years old)

17
28.2
Middle Adult (24 years old and above)

3
5.0
Total

60
100.0

Table 1 shows the distribution of respondents according to age. As indicated above, 40 out of 60 respondents, which account for 66.7% of the total population are categorized are Young (20 years old and below); 17 respondents, which account for 28.2 % of the total population are categorized as Young Adult (21 – 23 years old), and 3 respondents, which account for 5% of the total population are categorized as Middle Adult (24 years old and above).

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Table 2
Distribution of Respondents according to Year Level
Year Level of Respondents

f

%
Second Year

20

33.3
Third Year

20

33.3
Fourth Year

20

33.3
Total

60

100.0

Table 2 shows the distribution of respondents according to Year Level. As indicated above, 20 respondents, which account for 33.3% of the total population, are taken from each year level namely Second Year, Third Year and Fourth Year. Table 3

Distribution of Respondents according to Monthly Income of the Family Monthly Income
F

%
Below PhP5,000.00
32

53.3
PhP5,000.00 – PhP20,000.00
25

41.7
Above PhP20,000.00
3

5.0
Total
60

100.0

Table 3 shows the distribution of respondents according to monthly income of the family. As indicated above, 32 out of 60 respondents, which 26
account for 53.3% of the total population, have a monthly income that is below PhP 5, 000.00 , 25 respondents, which account for 41.7 % of the total population, have a monthly income that is within PhP 5, 000.00 – PhP 20, 000.00, and 3 respondents, which account for 5% of the total population , have a monthly income that is above PhP20,000.00 Table 4

Level of Awareness on Cybercrime Law among Criminology Students of UI-PHINMA, school year 2013-2014. Level of Awareness on Cybercrime Law

f

%
Less Aware (1.00 – 2.33)

1

1.7
Moderately Aware (2.34 – 3.66)

4

6.7
Highly Aware (3.67 – 5.00)

55

91.7
Total

60

100.0

Table 4 shows the level of awareness on Cybercrime Law among criminology students of UI-PHINMA. As indicated above, 1 out of 60 respondents, which accounts for 1.7% of the total population is categorized under Less Aware, 4 respondents, which account for 6.7% of the total population are categorized under Moderately Aware , and 55 respondents, which account for 91.7% of the total population is categorized under Highly Aware. The result indicates that majority of the Criminology students in the University of Iloilo – PHINMA are highly aware of the Cybercrime law. It has a great impact on the 27

students’ academic preparation since the students would be future peacekeepers of their country. Table 5
Difference in the Level of Awareness on Cybercrime Law among Criminology Students when classified according to Age

Age of Respondents
Level of Awareness on Cybercrime Law

N
Mean
Sd
F-value
p-value

Younger ( below 18)

40

4.22

.6417

Middle (18 – 21 years old)
17
4.23
.5551
.667
.512
Older ( above 21)
3
4.64
.2501

Total
60
4.25
.6053

Table 5a
Result of the Test of Significant Difference on the Awareness of Cybercrime Law among Criminology Students when Classified according to Age

Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Between Groups
.501
2
.251
.677
.512
Within Groups
21.112
57
.370

Total
21.613
59

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The result presented in Tables 5 and 5a revealed that no significant difference that existed in the level of awareness among the Criminology students on Cybercrime Law when they grouped according to age at alpha level .05(F-value (.667) = .512, p>.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. This implies that the level of awareness among various age groups does not vary. Table 6

Difference in the Level of Awareness on Cybercrime Law among Criminology Students when classified according to Year Level

Year Level of Respondents
Level of Awareness on Cybercrime Law

N
Mean
Sd
F-value
p-value

Second Year

20

4.24

.6600

Third Year
20
4.34
.6033
.406
.668
Fourth Year
20
4.16
.5674

Total
60
4.25
.6053

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Table 6a
Result of the Test of Significant Difference on the Awareness of Cybercrime Law among Criminology Students when Classified According to Year Level

Sum of Squares

Df
Mean Square
F
Sig.

Between Groups

.304

2
.152
.406
.668

Within Groups

21.310

57
.374

Total

21.613

59

The result of data presented in Tables 6 and 6a showed that there is no significant difference in the level of awareness among the Criminology students when grouped according to year level at alpha .05 (F-value (.406) = .668, p>.05. Therefore, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. This implies that the level of awareness on Cybercrime Law among Second Year Criminology students do not differ with that of the Third Year and Fourth Year Criminology students. Table 7

Difference in the Level of Awareness on Cybercrime Law among Criminology Students when classified according to Monthly Income of the Family

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Level of Awareness on Cybercrime Law
Economic Status of Respondents

N

Mean

sd

F-value
p-value

Below PhP5,000.00

32

4.24

.5985

PhP5,000.00 – PhP20,000.00
25

4.22

.6410

.170
.844
Above PhP20,000.00
3

4.44

.5095

Total
60

4.25

.6053

Table 7a
Result of the Test of Significant Difference on the Awareness of Cybercrime Law among Criminology Students when Classified According to Monthly Income of the Family

Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Between Groups
.128
2
.064
.170
.844
Within Groups
21.485
57
.377

Total
21.613
59

The result shown in Tables 7 and 7a revealed that there is no significant difference existed in the level of awareness among the Criminology students in Cybercrime Law when grouped they were according to monthly income of the family at alpha level .05(F-value (.170) = .884, p>.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. This implies that the level of awareness on Cybercrime law among Criminology students does not vary with regards to their economic status or family’s monthly income.

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Chapter 5
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This chapter presents the summary of the research study, its findings, conclusion and recommendation. Summary
This study was conducted to determine the level of awareness on Cybercrime Law among Criminology students in University of Iloilo – PHINMA in the first semester during the Academic Year 2013 – 2014. The respondents were 60 Criminology students coming from three year levels namely Second Year, Third Year and Fourth Year during the Academic Year 2013-2014. Twenty respondents were taken from each year level using stratified random sampling method. The data were gathered with the use of 15-item questionnaire which was subjected to content validity and reliability testing respectively. The collected data were analyzed and interpreted with the use of mean, standard deviation, T-test and using one-way ANOVA. The level of significance was set at 0.05 alpha. The following were the findings of the study:

1. Generally, the level of awareness on Cybercrime Law among Criminology students when classified according to age, year level and economic status was found to be high.

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2. There is no significant difference in the level of awareness on Cybercrime Law among Criminology students when they were classified according to age, year level and economic status. Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were formulated:
1. The “highly aware” level of awareness of Criminology students can be attributed to their attentiveness to the current development of the evolving laws in the country. As showed in the results of the study, majority of the students were aware of the Cybercrime law regardless of their age group, year level and economic status. This means that majority of the students had sufficient knowledge regarding Cybercrime law. Moreover, they may be able to use this knowledge in the future so as to fight against the growing Cybercrime rates.

2. Overall, there is no significant relationship existing among the age, year level and economic status of the Criminology students. This implies that majority of the students from Second Year to Fourth Year were aware of the Cybercrime law regardless of their age and their economic status. Recommendations

From the previous conclusions, the following recommendations are forwarded:
1. The students should maintain their attentiveness about the Cybercrime law and brace themselves for more updates about the law. 34
2. For the students who have less and moderate awareness about the Cybercrime law, they should spend more time in familiarizing themselves with the law so as to have sufficient knowledge about it.

3. In view of the limitations of the study, further studies are recommended to determine whether similar results would appear and to further validate the findings of the present study.

36
Appendix B
The Questionnaire Used in the Study
Awareness of Cybercrime Law among Criminology Students in University of Iloilo – Phinma Name (optional) : ____________________
Age: ______ year level: _______
Economic status: __ below 5,000 php
__5,000 – 20,000 php
__21,000 – up

Direction: please answer the following questions by encircling the number of your choice. They have indicated meanings as follows:

5 – strongly agree (SA) 4 – agree (A) 3 – not sure (NS) 2 – disagree (D) 1 – strongly disagree (SD)

SA
A
NS
D
SD
1. I am aware of the Cybercrime Law.
5
4
3
2
1
2. Cybercrime Law is a protection of an individual against the person who committed a crime involving the internet and the computer. 5
4
3
2
1
3. An individual has a right to exercise their own privacy in Cybercrime Law. 5
4
3
2
1

37
4. Cybercrime Law is a solution to resolve illegal activities in using computer and internet. 5
4
3
2
1
5. Are you in favor of the Cybercrime Law?
5
4
3
2
1
6. Is it necessary that the Cybercrime must be implemented?
5
4
3
2
1
7. Under RA 9775 or the Anti-Child Pornography Act of 2009, committed through a computer system: that the penalty to be impose is 1 degree higher than that provided for RA 9775.

5

4

3

2

1
8. Is it okay that the imposable penalty for Sec. 4(a) and 4(b) is prision mayor or a fine of at least two hundred thousand (200,000.00 php) up to maximum amount commensurate to the damage incurred or both.

5

4

3

2

1
9. The NBI and PNP shall organize a cybercrime unit or center manned by special investigators to exclusively handle cases involving violation of this act. 5
4
3
2
1
10. Is it necessary that if upon expiration of the periods provided in Sec. 13 (preservation of Computer Data) and Sec. 15 (Search, Seizure and Examination of Computer Data), service providers and law enforcement authorities, as the case may be, shall immediately and completely destroy the computer data.

5

4

3

2

1
11. Any evidence procured without a valid warrant or beyond the authority of the same shall be inadmissible in court or tribunal. 5
4
3
2
1
12. If there is any foreigner who violates any provisions of the law, he/she must be penalized according to the law implemented. 5
4
3
2
1

38
13. Should it be that 50,000,000.00 php will be the annual implementation of this act? 5
4
3
2
1

14. Do you agree that the government made this CICC (Cybercrime Investigations and Coordinating Center)? 5
4
3
2
1
15. Is it important that NBI and PNP coordinate with other countries about these computer-related crimes? 5
4
3
2
1

34
References
http://www.studymode.com/essays/Cyber-Crimes-And-The-Effort-To 525903.html Retrieved November 24, 2012 http://library.thinkquest.org/06aug/02257/ Retrieved November 24, 2012 http://www.cybercrimejournal.com/editorialijccvol1is2.htm Retrieved December 2, 2012 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybercrime_Prevention_Act_of_2012 Retrieved January 12, 2012 http://www.naavi.org/pati/pati_cybercrimes_dec03.htm Retrieved 23, 2013 http://www.studymode.com/essays/Effect-Of-Cyber-Crime-1327939.html Retrieved January 23, 2013 http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Cybersecurity/Documents/CybcrimeE.pdf Retrieved February 4, 2013 http://technology.inquirer.net/21557/87-of-filipino-internet-users-have-been-victims-of-cybercrimes-doj Retrieved February 16, 2013 Understanding and Managing Cybercrime, Samuel C. McQuade III, 2006 Retrieved February 11, 2013 https://www.google.com.ph/search?q=map+of+university+of+iloilo+&oq=map+of+university+of+iloilo+&aqs=chrome..69i57.25282j0j8&sourceid=chrome&espv=210&es_sm=93&ie=UTF-8 Retrieved December 5, 2013 http://www.gov.ph/2012/09/12/republic-act-no-10175/ Retrieved December 5, 2013

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