The anterior and medial thigh begin at the Inguinal ligament, which runs from the anterior superior iliac spine, and insert on the pubic tubercle. The distal termination of this region is the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. The hip joint is ball and socket joint, which is multiaxial, and can achieve flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, rotation and circumduction. The patellofemoral joint is a synovial planar joint, and the tibiofemoral joint is a hinge joint, which produces flexion and extension (this hinge joint is unique, and allows for medial and lateral rotation as well). The major superficial vein of the thigh is the greater saphenous vein. When speaking of vein origin, you start distally, and move proximally toward the trunk. So the greater saphenous vein originates from the anterior aspect of the medial malleolus, medially past the knee (one patients hand width medial) and into the fascia lata through the saphenous opening, (Opening will be found the most inferior angle of the femoral triangle. Insertions for the inguinal ligament are the pubic tubercle (medial insertion) and the anterior superior iliac spine (Lateral Insertion [a.k.a. ASIS]) The boundaries of the femoral triangle
Boundaries: Inguinal Ligament (superior), Sartorius (lateral), adductor longus(medial) Roof: Fascia Lata
Floor: Iliopsoas (lateral) and Pectinius (medial)
Contents: Femoral Nerve, Artery, Vein, Empty Space and Lymph nodes (a.k.a. NAVEL [Lateral to medial orientation]) Femoral Sheath contains Femoral Artery, Vein, and Empty Space (a.k.a. Shave the NAVEL [Lateral to medial orientation]) Femoral Nerve, Artery and vein become are named as such when they pass under the inguinal ligament. Femoral nerve is most lateral, followed by the femoral sheath (extension of deep fascia of the abdomen), which encloses the femoral artery, vein, and a chamber of empty space. Femoral artery should be at the midline of the inguinal ligament, clinically this is where you can find a pulse. The Sartorius is a long narrow muscle, and is most superficial. Sartorius passes diagonally from ASIS to superior, medial tibia (Represents the S in SGT for the three muscles of the pes anserinus. Femoral a. femoral n. Rectus femoris runs from the anterior inferior iliac spine (partial insertion on acetabulum), and inserts via the patella tendon. Femoral a. femoral n. Vastus Medialis originates from the medial lip of the linea aspera, and inserts via the patella tendon. Femoral a. Nerve to vastus medialis. Vastus lateralis originates from the lateral lip of the linea aspera as well as the greater trochanter, and inserts via the patella tendon. Descending branch of the lateral circumflex artery. Femoral n. (HINT: Lateralis has its own artery, medialis has its own nerve) Vastus Intermedius Lies deep to all other muscles of the quadriceps, primarily inserts on anterior and lateral shaft of the femur, inserts via the patella tendon. The adductor canal, a.k.a. subsartorial canal, a.k.a. hunters canal runs from the apex of the femoral triangle to the adductor hiatus formed by the adductor magnus. It contains the femoral artery, femoral vein, saphenous nerve, and nerve to vastus medialis. Both nerves will exit the canal and not pass into the adductor hiatus, while both vessels will enter the adductor hiatus, and change names to popliteal artery and vein. Adductor hiatus is a gap between insertions of adductor magnus (between linea aspera and the supracondylar line on the medial aspect of the femur). The Deep femoral artery a.k.a. Profunda Femoris** branches off the femoral artery just inferior to the femoral triangle. This artery will dive posteriorly and form two major branches, which are the lateral and medial femoral circumflex arteries. After the deep femoral artery forms its branches, it will also dive to the medial compartment of the thigh, where it will lay on pectineus, adductor brevis, and adductor magnus, as it gives off perforating...
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