Module 01 Lab Worksheet: General Review
This week’s lab will focus on reviewing the concepts of anatomical terminology, metric conversion and genetics, specifically the concept of dominant and recessive alleles in a human pedigree. Objectives
Objectives for this week’s lab include: 1) Review anatomical terminology, 2) Demonstrate metric conversion knowledge, and 3) Review the concepts of genetic inheritance and demonstrate knowledge of the inheritance patterns of dominant and recessive alleles through a human pedigree analysis. Overview
Understanding and proper use of anatomical terminology is necessary within the health sciences field and will be vital for the various dissections that will be performed in future labs. Specifically, the terms: anterior (rostral), posterior (caudal), lateral, medial, superior (dorsal), inferior (ventral), distal, proximal, superficial and deep. If you are unfamiliar with any of these terms, please review them prior to the lab.
The majority of the world and all of the scientific community (including all disciplines health care) utilize the metric system. Having a standardized unit of measurement across systems, professional fields and countries with the ease of converting units is not only necessary, it’s vital. By now, you should have been exposed to the metric system and these concepts will be reviewed within this lab. If unfamiliar with some concepts of the metric system, please review them prior to lab.
The process of genetic inheritance can be complex and confusing to most but having a solid understanding will further help your ability to comprehend genetic disorders, predispositions to certain diseases/conditions and how traits are passed from one generation to the next. By now, you should have been exposed to the concept of Punnett squares in “predicting” the likelihood a particular trait will be passed to offspring. This lab will examine the mapping of a human pedigree in determining the phenotype and genotype of an individual.
Human cells have 46 chromosomes; 22 pairs of identical chromosomes and a set of sex chromosomes. You have a chromosomal set from your mother (23 chromosomes; from the egg) and a chromosomal set from your father (23 chromosomes; from the sperm). Ultimately, you have 22 pairs of homologous (identical) chromosomes; this means you have two copies of these genes (1 from your mother, 1 from your father). These copies are called alleles and can be either Dominant or Recessive. For simplicity reasons (not necessary true), let’s say on chromosome 8 there is a gene (called gene “webbed toe”) that will determine if you have webbed toes or not. You have two copies of the gene “webbed toe”; because you have 2 homologous copies of chromosome 8 (1 from your mother, 1 from your father).
These two copies are not exactly identical; they have slight DNA sequence variations within each gene. These variations are called alleles and can be in the form of a Dominant allele (in this case represented by “W”) or Recessive allele (in this case represented by “w”). The set of alleles an individual has is referred to as their genotype and is determined by which allele you receive from each parent. Your genotype can either be: WW, Ww or ww.
Anytime a Dominant allele is present (WW or Ww), its phenotype (physical characteristic) is expressed; in this case- no webbed toes. The only time the Recessive allele phenotype (physical characteristic) is expressed is when the Dominant allele is absent, (ww); in this case- webbed toes. If an individual is Ww; sometimes that individual is referred to as a “carrier” of the recessive allele. He/she doesn’t physically express the recessive allele trait but can pass the allele to an offspring.
Content from Module 01
Pre-Lab Evaluation Questions
The pre-lab evaluation questions must be answered prior to lab and demonstrated to your lab instructor. You must read through...
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