Water quality

Topics: Water, PH, Oxygen Pages: 12 (2373 words) Published: May 31, 2014
Water Quality Monitoring at Pulau Bidong
Muhammad Amirul Siddiq B Abd Rashid
UK 28208
Dr Hasrizal Shaari

Table of Content

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Literature Review

Nitrite-Nitrogen (NO2—N)








Dissolved oxygen


Total Dissolve Phosphorous



3.0 Methodology

Sampling Area


Sampling Method


Hydrolab Data


Laboratory Analysis
3.4.1 Cholorphyll a
3.4.2 Phosphorous
3.4.3 Nitrite-Nitrogen (NO2)

4.0 Work Schedule

5.0 References

1.0 Introduction
Water quality monitoring is the study that involve three types of parameters which is biological, chemical and physical parameters (Lim et al., 2011). This research will focus on chemical parameters such as Nitrite-Nitrogen (NO2—N), Ammoniacal Nitrogen and Unionised Ammonia, Chlorophyll-a, pH, total dissolve phosphorous, salinity and dissolved oxygen and physical parameters such as temperature. By doing this research, we can determine the pollution level at Pulau Bidong. The main sources of marine pollution are from land base activity such as wastewater and solid waste (BOBLME, 2011, cited by, Gasim et al., 2012). Pulau Bidong have a lot of human activity that can contribute to increasing of water pollution level such as survival laut. So, this research need to be carry out to find out the pollution level at Pulau Bidong. Similar research had been carried out in Penang (Suami et al., 2011; Gasim et al., 2012; Lim et al., 2011) and Port Dickson (Praveena et al., 2011). Another water monitoring for entire Malaysia have been carried out using remote sensing and GIS. (Usali & Ismail, 2010).

2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Nitrite-Nitrogen (NO2—N) and Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3—N) Nitrite (NO2) can be produce through oxidation ammonia or reduction of Nitrate (NO3). The use of Nitrite and Nitrate is to investigate nitrification of bacteria under anaerobic condition from the oxidation of ammonium can form nitrite. High concentration of nitrite in the water can cause brown-blood disease to the fish. The fish blood will become chocolate-brown in colour. The symptom of the brown-blood disease can be seen in the fish gills. However, the nitrite also can have effect towards the fish before the fish gills change colour (Parsons et al,. 1984). So, Nitrite and Nitrate can be investigate at the waste water of Pulau Bidong.

2.2 Chlorophyll-a
One of the parameter that will be using is the chlorophyll-a. It is used to measure the quantity of phytoplankton in seawater and thus to estimate the amount of chlorophyll. The value of chlorophyll can be relate to the scenario of pollution. It can be employed in determining the assimilation index in the conjuction with photosynthetic rate measurements. The filter membrane will be filtered and then the pigments will add some acetone and their concentration will spectrophotometrically. If the concentration too high, the eutrophication might be occur.

2.3 pH
pH was defined as the concentration of hydrogen ions (in modern nomenclature) as pH = −lg(cH/c°) where cH is the hydrogen ion concentration in mol dm–3, and c° = 1 mol dm– 3 is the standard amount concentration (Sorensen, 1909, cited by R.P. BUCK et al., 2012). The pH value usually is to measured the activity oh hydrogen ios in water. The pH indicator are usually weak acids or weak bases that change colour at different protonation states. The

pH indicators measure activities of hydronium ions (H3O+) and hydrogen ion s (H+). The pH indicator are added only in a very small volume to the water samples. Colour of the pH indicator changes depending on the pH to the water sample.

2.4 Salinity
Salinity describes the weight in grams of solid materials dissolved in a kilogram of water. It is expressed in parts per thousand (ppt) and often written as o/oo. The salinity in coastal area is lesser than in the open ocean where there is no influence of freshwater runoff...

References: B.L. Hampson. (1977). The Analysis of Ammonia in Polluted Seawater. Elsevier Ltd, 3(11),
M. (2013). Marine Pollution at Northeast of Penang Island. Research Journal of
Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 6(8), 1348–1353.
Hing, L. S., Hii, Y. S., Yong, J. C. & Azhar, N., (2012). A Handbook for Basic Water Quality
Lim, H. S., & Tan, F. (2011). Water Quality Study Using Oceansat Imagery over Penang
Island, 10–14.
Praveena, S. M., Siraj, S. S., Suleiman, A. K., & Aris, A. Z. (2011). A brush up on Water
Quality Studies of Port Dickson, Malaysia
M. J. T. Milton, T. Mussini, Measurement of ph, definition, standards, and procedures,
International Union of Pure and applied Chemistry, 11(74), 2169–2200.
Sükran D., Tohit G., & Rıdvan S. (1997). Spectrophotometric Determination of Chlorophyll
AB and Total Carotenoid Contents of Some Algae Species Using Different Solvents,
Tr. J. of Botany, 22 (1998) 13-17.
Syahreza, S. (2011). Monitoring Surface Water Quality in Coastal Area of Penang.
Usali, N., Hasmadi, M., & Corresponding, I. (2010). Use of Remote Sensing and GIS in
Monitoring Water Quality
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