Different types of wastewaters
Domestic effluents are generated from activities such as bathing, laundry, cleaning, cooking, washing, and other kitchen activities. This contains a large amount of organic waste with suspended solids and coliforms. Calculations made based on available data show that half the organic waste is from the domestic sector (PEM, 2003). As stated in the EMB report, domestic wastewater discharges contribute highest to the BOD load as the lack of sewage treatment system allows more than 90 percent of inadequately treated domestic sewage to be discharged into surface waters, which contain bacteria and viruses that threaten human life. Geographically, data show that one-third (30 percent) of BOD generation comes from Metro Manila and Region IV alone, at 18 and 15 percent, respectively (PEM, 2003). Industrial wastewater
Reports show that the volume and characteristics of industrial effluents vary by type of industry and are influenced by different factors such as production processes and the scale of production used. Industries that are found to be water-intensive, i.e. food and dairy manufacturing, pulp, paper and paperboard products, and textile products, correspondingly discharge large amounts of wastewater (PEM, 2003). Most of the water pollution-intensive industries are in National Capital Region, Calabarzon, and Region III. Food manufacturing industries, piggeries, and slaughterhouses are the main sources of organic pollution (PEM, 2004). A report from a study conducted by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) in 1999 emphasizes that the situation is even more critical with regard to hazardous wastes. In the said report, approximately 2,000 cubic meters of solvent wastes, 22,000 tons of heavy metals, infectious wastes, biological sludge, lubricants, and intractable wastes, as well as 25 million cubic meters of acid/alkaline liquid wastes are improperly disposed of annually in the Metro Manila area alone. A study by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) conducted in 2001 (as cited in National Economic Development Authority’s document on the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan 2004-2010) states that around 700 industrial establishments in the Philippines generate about 273,000 tons of hazardous wastes per annum. It was further estimated that with 5,000 potential hazardous waste generators, about 2.41 million tons of hazardous wastes will be generated. At present, the report added, there is no integrated treatment facility for hazardous wastes in the country although there are about 95 small to mediumscale treatment facilities that treat hazardous wastes (i.e., used oil, sludge). There is approximately 50,000 tons of hazardous wastes stored on or offsite due to lack of proper treatment, recovery and recycling facilities. Sometimes they end up being recycled in backyard operations further putting at risk workers and communities hosting these informal recycling facilities. Other hazardous wastes are exported to other countries for recovery and disposal (i.e. metal bearing sludge, used solvents and electronic wastes) and treatment (e.g. PCB). Health and environmental problems
Much of the surface water in urban areas is a public health risk while rural surface waters are also sources of disease. The World Bank estimates that exposure to water pollution and poor sanitation account for one-sixth of reported disease cases, and nearly 6,000 premature deaths per year. The cost of treatment and lost income from illness and death due to water pollution is pegged at PHP6.7 billion (US$134 million) per year (PEM 2006). Pollution of our water resources such as untreated wastewater discharges affect human health through the spread of disease-causing bacteria and viruses. Some known examples of diseases that may be spread through wastewater discharge are gastro-enteritis, diarrhea, typhoid, cholera, dysentery,...
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