# Volume and Data Table

An old riddle asks “Which is heavier, a pound of feathers or a pound of lead?” The answer is obvious, of course, since a pound of feathers and a pound of lead both weigh the same, one pound. However, there is clearly something different about a small piece of lead and a large bag of feathers, even though they weigh the same. What is this difference?

The relationship between the lead and feathers is expressed by the physical property called density. Density is defined as the ratio of a substance’s mass to the volume it occupies.

Density (g/mL) = Mass (g)___

Volume (mL)

In this laboratory exercise, you will be using skills and techniques learned earlier to determine the identity of different substances. To determine the precision of your technique, you will calculate the percent error, which is a comparison of the differences between the measured value and accepted value. Percent error can be determined as follows:

% Error = (Measured Value – Accepted Value( x 100

Accepted Value

OBJECTIVES

When you have completed this activity, you should be able to:

Observe the chemical and physical properties of substances to interpret the structure of and the changes in matter.

MATERIALS

BalanceRectangular solid

Metric rulerMetal cylinder

100 mL graduated cylinder250 mL beaker

PROCEDURE

PART I: RECTANGULAR SOLID

Mass:

Use the balance to determine the mass of the rectangular solid.

Record the mass to the nearest 0.01 g in the data table.

Volume:

Use the metric ruler to measure the length, width, and height of the rectangular solid.

Record these measurements to the nearest 0.1 cm in the data table.

Calculate the volume using the following formula:

Volume (cm3) = length (cm) x width (cm) x height (cm)

Record the volume in your data table to correct significant figures.

|Mass (g) |Length (cm) |Width (cm) |Height (cm) |Volume (cm3) | | | | | | |

PART II: LIQUID

Mass and Volume:

1. Mass the empty 100 mL graduated cylinder.

2. Record the mass to the nearest 0.01 g in the data table.

3. Pour tap water into the 100 mL graduated cylinder up to the 50 mL mark. To obtain a proper reading, your eye level should be the same as the water level. Be sure to place the graduated cylinder on a flat surface. Move your eye to the level of the water in the cylinder, do not lift it. Notice the curve in the center of the water level. The curve is called the meniscus. The volume of the liquid is read from the bottom of the meniscus.

4. Record the water level to the nearest 0.1 mL in the data table.

5. Mass the cylinder with the 50 mL of water.

6. Record the mass of the cylinder and water to the nearest 0.01 g in the data table. 7. Calculate the mass of water by subtracting the mass of the empty cylinder from the mass of the cylinder and water.

|Mass of empty cylinder (mL) |Volume of water (mL) |Mass of cylinder and water (g) |Mass of water (g) | | | | | |

PART III: METAL CYLINDER

Mass:

1. Determine the mass of the metal cylinder.

2. Record the mass to the nearest 0.01 g in the data table.

Volume using the water displacement method:

1. Fill your 100 mL graduated cylinder to approximately the 50 mL mark.

2. Record the volume to the nearest 0.1 mL in the data table.

3. Tilt the cylinder and slide the metal cylinder into the water slowly. Be sure...

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