Effectiveness of Using Assistive Technology with Students with Learning Disabilities to Improve Reading Comprehension Abdalmajeed Alrabiah
University of Wisconsin-Whitewater
Effectiveness of Using Assistive Technology with Students with Learning disabilities to Improve Reading Comprehension
In 2010, the U.S Department of Education provided a national educational technology plan titled, Transforming American Education: Learning Powered by Technology. In fact, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) stated that 96% of schools in the United States have computers with Internet access (Gray, Thomas, & Lewis, 2010). Meanwhile, using technology in the field of education is wide,, has a vast application, and is continually progressing. This era is considered the scientific revolution of technology, with technology impacting every aspect of human life. Indeed, there is an abundance of educational instructional technology-based programs for teaching students (Lee, McGee, & Unger, 2001). Both regular education and special education are impacted, and students with special needs may benefit greatly from technology in all areas of daily living. Indeed, Kulik (2003) stated that technology tutoring usually generates positive outcomes among elementary and high schools students. Furthermore, technology is used in all educational areas. According to Gardner, Morrison, and Jarman (1993) the use of technology demonstrated positive effects in student writing, mathematics, and science in elementary schools. Statement of Problem
The U.S. Department of Education reports that 8.43% of students in school are served under IDEA. Interestingly, 40% of the students served under IDEA have learning disabilities (LD). Furthermore, Gersten, Fuchs, Williams, and Baker (2001) state that 80% of students with LD struggle in terms of reading, specifically, reading comprehension. Mastorpieri, Scruggs, and Gratez (2003) state that these students typically function below their grade level in reading by at least one or more years. Thus, the purpose of this literature review is to consider a body of single-case research regarding technology use with students with learning disabilities and its effects on their reading comprehension. Promoting Comprehension by Computer Assistance
This multiple baseline design study by Stetter and Hughes (2011) examined the effect of using computer assisted instruction to teach comprehension strategies for students with LD. The study was conducted in an urban high school in the United States at the computer lab during school days. The participants of this study included nine students with learning disabilities, randomly selected from 29 students who returned the consent forms. The participants were three African American, two Latino girls and four Latino boys, ranging in age from 14 – 15 years old working at the third to fifth grade level. All of the participants were identified as having a learning disability in reading. Before implementing the study, the participants took subtests to measure their reading comprehension. The standardized test that was used created by MacGinitie, MacGinitie, Maria, and Dreyer (2001). The reading comprehension of the participants ranged from 3.3 to 4.9. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment the participants took an alternate test by the same instrument to look at general growth in reading comprehension. There were 35 stories, the reader as detective (Goodman, 1994), read throughout the study by the computer. Moreover, the participants used story maps on the computer to examine their reading comprehension. After all the sessions, the participants completed a comprehension quiz contained 20-question. Thus, the dependent variable was the number of correct answers. The participants were divided into three groups for the multiple baseline design. The intervention began with first group, while the two groups stayed at the baseline for a while. Then, the...
References: Gardner, J., Morrison, H., & Jarman, R. (1993). The impact of high access to computers on learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 9, 2-16.
Gersten, R., Fuchs, L. S., Williams, J. P., & Baker, S. (2001). Teaching reading comprehension strategies to students with learning disabilities: A review of research. Review of Educational Research, 71, 279-320.
Gray, L., Thomas, N., and Lewis, L. (2010). Teachers’ Use of Educational Technology in U.S. Public Schools: 2009 (NCES 2010-040). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.
Mastropieri, M.A., Scruggs, T. E., & Graetz, J. E. (2003). Reading comprehension instruction for secondary students: Challenges for struggling students and teachers. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26(2), 103-116.
Stetter, M., & Hughes, M. (2011). Computer assisted instruction to promote comprehension in students with learning disabilities. International Journal of Special education, 26(1), 88-101.
Williamson, G., Hinshaw, R., & Nelson, J., (2008). The impact of self-questioning strategy use on the text-reader assisted comprehension of student with reading disabilities. International Journal of Special Education, 23(1), 123-135.
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