Urine Analysis Lab Report

Topics: Urine, Kidney, Nephron Pages: 5 (1477 words) Published: May 20, 2014
Urine Analysis Lab Report
Objectives:
To learn what tests can analyze a person’s urine and what they find Chem – 9 Test
Specific Density
Microscope Analysis of Urine
To analyze a urine sample
Examine presence of normal/abnormal elements
Use urine sample to find specific gravity, pH, and chemical parts To have a better understanding of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion, and see how they affect urine production. Background:
There is a lot of importance that comes with testing urine. Many different diseases can be tested for, (i.e. diabetes) and a urinalysis can provide a lot of useful information to physicians. Simple tests can immediately be taken from simply looking at a urine sample; color, odor, transparency, etc. By looking at the color of urine, things such as hydration levels can be tested. The clearer urine is, the more water that is present. Also, with the use of a microscope, particles like casts and sugar can be detected. The presence of too many certain particles can help to indicate that an infection/disease may be present. There are countless tests that can be taken during a urinalysis that can help to show any abnormalities in the urine and rest of the body. The process of producing urine and removing toxins from the body occurs in the excretory system. The organs (kidneys, etc.) that are a part of this system are in charge of different aspects of urine production. When urine is being formed, there are three processes that must occur. The first step that occurs is filtration. In this step, diffusion occurs under high pressure because blood is moving to the glomerulus of the nephron through the afferent blood vessel. The lumen size of the vessel becomes immediately smaller, so when substances in the blood are being filtered out, they are pushed through by a high pressure. The kidney at this point is simply trying to maintain a homeostatic control, so not everything is filtered out. Next, the filtrate goes through reabsorption, which starts to occur in the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron. When particles are being reabsorbed, they can be reabsorbed by a concentrated gradient, active transport pores, and facilitated diffusion pores. Once the filtrate moves to the loop of henle, as it descends, water is highly permeable and sodium is impermeable to the membrane of the loop of henle. Water continues to diffuse out, but around the middle of the loop, the rules of diffusion change. Sodium is now highly permeable, but water is not. This means that the loop of henle has dual permeability. A counter current also occurs at this step because the filtrate is moving one direction, while the vessel running along side of it has blood moving the other direction. When the sodium diffuses out, urea becomes magnetized to it and also diffuses out. Now the sodium and urea are held in the interstitial space. After the reabsorption step, secretion occurs. In this step, the filtrate starts to move down the collecting duct of the loop of henle. There is a gradient that occurs between the high salt concentration outside the collecting duct and the low concentration of salt inside. Salt, along with the urea, diffuses into the collecting duct and moves down to the bladder. Urine has now been formed with the combination of salt, urea, and water. It is now held in the bladder until it can be excreted. Materials:

Urine collecting cup
Fresh urine sample (subject’s own)
Chem – 9 strip
Urinometer
Clean microscope slide
Slide cover strips
Microscope
Test tube
Centrifuge
Centrifuge tube
Spatula
Methods/Procedure:
1. Take a urine collecting cup. Use the restroom and take a sample of urine. 2. With the sample in the cup, dip a Chem – 9 strip in the urine for 30 seconds. 3. Lay the strip on a paper towel for 60 seconds. Use the Chem – 9 strip container to analyze the results on the strip. Normal Levels for Chem – 9 Test:

Leukocytes – Negative
Nitrite – Negative
pH – 5 to 7
Protein – Negative to trace...
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