GENERAL SCIENCE POINTERS
BASIC CONCEPTS AND LAWS
Science and Technology
is a systematic study that is concerned with facts and principles, and methods that could be observed in our natural or physical and social environment. It comes from the Latin word 'scire' that means 'to know’. -
is both a body of knowledge and a process – away of thinking, a way of solving problems
The Branches of Science
THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES
Physics: The study of matter and energy and the interactions between them. Physicists study such subjects as gravity, light, and time. Albert Einstein, a famous physicist, developed the Theory of Relativity. •
Chemistry: The science that deals with the composition, properties, reactions, and the structure of matter. The chemist Louis Pasteur, for example, discovered pasteurization, which is the process of heating liquids such as milk and orange juice to kill harmful germs. •
Astronomy: The study of the universe beyond the Earth's atmosphere.
THE EARTH SCIENCES
Geology: The science of the origin, history, and structure of the Earth, and the physical, chemical, and biological changes that it has experienced or is experiencing. •
Oceanography: The exploration and study of the ocean.
Paleontology: The science of the forms of life that existed in prehistoric or geologic periods. •
Meteorology: The science that deals with the atmosphere and its phenomena, such as weather and climate.
THE LIFE SCIENCES (BIOLOGY)
Botany: The study of plants.
Zoology: The science that covers animals and animal life. •
Genetics: The study of heredity.
Medicine: The science of diagnosing, treating, and preventing illness, disease, and injury.
is the logical method used by scientists to acquire knowledge that is used to explain different phenomena in nature. A thing observed by the senses is called a phenomenon; a scientifically tested observation is called a fact. The scientific method has six basic steps, namely:
Identify and clearly state the problem. Questions arise from something observed as unusual; problem that is specific, measurable, and attainable is identified.
Gather information pertinent to the problem. This is done by recalling past experiences concerning the problem, interviewing people who are knowledgeable of the problem, and researching in libraries and research centers. c.
Formulate hypothesis. Based on information or data gathered, an 'educated guess' can be made.
Test the hypothesis. Carrying out experiments.
Controlled experiment - manipulating one of the conditions or factors that may affect the result of experiment.
1) Trials - number of times experiment is repeated.
2) Controls - factors that are kept constant throughout the experiment 3) Variables - factors that change during the experiment.
Kinds: 1. Independent or experimental - factors that are changed.
2. Dependent - factors that change as a result of changes in the independent variable.
Presentation of Data
Tables - easy to read, organized presentations.
Graphs - readily show patterns of data.
Kinds: 1. Line - proper to use when comparing two continuously changing variables. 2. Bar - appropriate to use when comparing a changing value with an unchanging value.
e. Draw a generalization or conclusion.
Conclusion - a statement about the result of the experiment. Law - a statement which describes what happens but does not explain the cause of the occurrence. Theory - hypothesis that can be explained from observations.
f. Apply the principle (conclusion) to other situations.
Scientific knowledge may also be obtained through the use of models and ideas, or through serendipity or accidental discovery. In scientific study, .some standards or procedures must be observed. Scientists should always exhibit scientific attitudes like the following:
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