Globalization and Strategy
Course Code: EM – 559
Batch – 22nd
ID – 3-12-22-010
Sheikh Mahtab Tanim
Batch – 22nd
ID – 3-12-22-016
Sk Abdullah Al Tareq
Batch – 22nd
ID – 3-12-22-026
Department of Management Studies
Faculty of Business Studies
University of Dhaka
Date: July 09, 2013
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Sl | Contents | Page | 1. | Introduction | 4 | 2. | Training Process | 4 | 3. | Five Steps Training and Development Process | 5 | 4. | Research Methodology | 6 | 5. | Discussion: Brief Overview of the two Companies | 7 | 6. | Unilever Bangladesh | 7 | 7. | Bashundhara Group | 7 | 8. | Training and Development Practices of Unilever Bangladesh | 8 | 9. | List of Training Program Employees of Unilever Usually Attended | 8 | 10. | Training Methods Used by Unilever | 9 | 11. | Different Types of Training Program | 10 | 12. | Approach of Employee Regarding Frequency and Effectiveness of the Training | 11 | 13. | Training and Development Practices of the Bashundhara Group | 12 | 14. | Method Used in Training Need Analysis | 12 | 15. | Types of Training Bashundhara Offer for their Employee | 12 | 16. | Various Training Methods Used by Bashundhara | 13 | 17. | Different Types of Training Program Used by Bashundhara | 14 | 18. | Approach of Employee Regarding Frequency and Effectiveness of the Training | 15 | 19. | Finding and Analysis | 16 | 20. | Recommendation | 17 | 21. | Conclusion | 18 | 22. | Bibliography | 19 | List of Figures Sl | Figure | Page | 1. | Figure – 1: Various Training Methods of Unilever Bangladesh | 9 | 2. | Figure – 2: Different Types of Training Program of Unilever | 10 | 3. | Figure – 3: Employee Feedback regarding Training Frequency | 11 | 4. | Figure – 4: Various Training Methods of Bashundhara Group | 13 | 5. | Figure – 5: Different Types of Training Program of Bashundhara | 14 | 6. | Figure – 6: Employee Feedback Regarding Training Frequency | 15 |
Training may be viewed as a systematic process to modify employees’ attitudes, knowledge or skill behavior in a way that leads to the increase achievement of organizational goals (Ivancevich, 1995). The decision to train staff is influenced by several factors such as investment in new technology, adaptability and flexibility of workforce, improvement of employee job performance, the adoption of new work practices and more sophisticated HRM systems, and changes in business strategy(Smith and Hayton, 1999).Human resource management (HRM) theory argues that firms can use training as a means of enhancing employee commitment (Rainbaird, 2004; Heyes and Stuart, 1996).From a strategic HRM theory perspective, training has been viewed as a means of enhancing the performance of the employee (Smith and Hayton, 1999) and organizational performance (Delaney and Huselid, 1996). Resource based theories of strategic HRM views human resources as a “core competency” for the ﬁrm (Prahaladand Hamel, 1990; Barney, 1991; Amit and Schoemaker, 1993). The human resource view posits that a ﬁrm can “leverage” its pool of human capital to achieve a competitive advantage (Huselidet al., 1997). The resource-based view assumes that the differences in the organizational, human and physical resources between ﬁrms create a fundamental heterogeneity in their productive potential (Priem and Butler, 2001).
Training and development (T&D) encompasses three main activities: training, education, and development. Garavan, Costine, and Heraty, of the Irish Institute of Training and Development, note that these ideas are often considered to be synonymous. However, to practitioners, they encompass three separate, although interrelated, activities:
* Training: This activity is both focused upon, and evaluated against, the job that an individual currently holds.
* Education: This activity focuses upon the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future, and is evaluated against those jobs.
* Development: This activity focuses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almost impossible to evaluate.
Training refers to the methods used to give new or present employees the skills they need to perform their jobs. Training might mean showing a new Web designer the intricacies of your site, a new salesperson how to sell your firm’s product, or a new supervisor how to fill out the firm’s weekly payroll timesheets. Training is a hallmark of good management, and a task manager ignore at their peril. Having high-potential employees doesn’t guarantee they’ll succeed5.
Five steps Training and Development Process,
Analysis Phase: An effective business is one that is able to scan its environment and determine the products and services it can provide to meet customer or market needs. Similarly an effective training system begins with a determination of customer needs in the needs analysis phase.
Design Phase: In addition to the training needs identified in the TNA, additional inputs to the design phase are developed from the organizational and operational analyses. These inputs include both the constraints placed on training and areas of expected support. Constraints and support occur in relation to things such as organizational plans resources and business cycles. Another set of inputs is derived from theory and research on learning these inputs are used in the design of training programs to facilitate learning and the transfer of the learning back to the work site.
Development Phase: Program development is the process of formulating an instructional strategy to meet a set of training objectives. The instructional strategy consists of the order, timing and combination of elements to be used in the training program. Inputs into this phase are provided by the design phase and include the alternative instructional methods and the information relating to learning facilitation and transfer. All elements of a particular training program are determined during the development phase.
Implementation Phase: All the aspects of the training program come together during the implementation phase however; it is a mistake to assume that everything will happen as planned. Therefore it is useful to conduct a dry run of the training similar to a dress rehearsal for a play allowing the trainer to become familiar with the facility, equipment and materials with no actual trainees present. A useful next step in the implementation process is a pilot training group, consisting of a small number of trainee’s representative of the larger population.
Evaluation Phase: Although we discuss this phase of the model last it actually begins during the development phase. Recall that evaluation objectives are an output of the design phase. These outputs become inputs to the evaluation phase.
Outcome evaluation: Outcome evaluation is conducted at the end of training to determine the effects of training on the trainee the job, and the organization, using the training objectives as the standard. Outcome evaluation can also be used to improve training processes. Outcome evaluation data by themselves do not provide enough information for program improvement but in combination with process evaluation data they serve as a powerful tool for improving programs.
The study is a case study based qualitative and quantitative research. The rationale behind choosing this to find out the different context of training and development between a local and a foreign organization both primary and secondary data is used for data collection. Various articles journals collected from the internet used as secondary data of the research. Personal discussion and interview with employees are the sources of primary data collection. A structured questionnaire was used to keep the study in an assembly and interview the respondents based on employee training and development policies and practices as well. Around 20 employees of the Unilever and Bashundhara Group are interviewed by Phone calls and face to face conversation. Questionnaire was developed focusing on some important issues like; importance of training, types and methods of training, training need analysis (T.N.A), training evaluation, budget for training, training for expatriates and their expectation from the organization regarding training. Chart and diagrams are also used based on employee responses.
Brief Overview of the Two Companies
Over the last four decades, Unilever Bangladesh has been constantly bringing new and world-class products for the Bangladeshi people to remove the daily drudgery of life.
Type of business
Fast Moving Consumer Goods Company with local manufacturing facilities, reporting to regional business groups for innovation and business results.
Home and Personal Care, Foods
Household Care, Fabric Cleaning, Skin Cleansing, Skin Care, Oral Care, Hair Care, Personal Grooming, Tea based Beverages.
The Bashundhara Group has started operation as a real estate venture known as “Bashundhara” under the aegis of the Group’s first concern – the East West Property Development (Pvt) Ltd in 1987. This project turned out to be a very successful one and had helped foster the growth of trust and confidence of the urban people in “Bashundhara”. Dhaka’s burgeoning population, coupled with a conspicuously slow growth of housing led to the landmark success of Bashundhara.
Type of business
Real estate, Construction, Fast-moving consumer goods, Steel, Shopping Mall, Paper and paper products, Energy, Cement, Media, Ship building.
Real estate, cement, paper and pulp, tissue paper, steel, LP Gas, ship building. It also owned recreation centre called the Bashundhara City and in print and online media that include bangla dailies – “The Kaler Kantho” and “The Bangladesh Pratidin”, English newspaper the “Daily Sun” and bilingual online portal “banglanews24.com.
Training and development practices of the Unilever Bangladesh
The nature of training and development designed by Unilever is proactive-planned and systematically administrated rather than reactive-provided only when problem occurs. Everybody is given equal number of training based on their level. A probe suggests that about 75% to 80% employees are provided training each year. As it is a multinational organization, it has to always keep pace with the changing situation; they have to adjust their training contents with changing need and environment. Alike other organizations, Unilever also uses both general and specific training. General training is the training that provides the worker with skill development not only applicable for the present employer. Unilever design strategic learning roadmap consisting tailored learning strategies for each of our employee clusters of the business divisions, based on a shared vision, to make us a proud member of a learning organization. Unilever adopt best technology based modules, methodologies, in-house and external faculties/trainers to ensure the best return from human development investments. On-the-job-training and off-the-job-training both are also used by Unilever to train up employees. Internship and training from senior staff are the most common method for on-the-job training. Sometimes senior management share their knowledge and experiences about attaining seminars on abroad or other special training that is also considered as on-the-job-training. Off-the-job training is undertaken by Bangladesh Institute of Management (BIM), National Productivity Organization Bangladesh, Participation on Different Training program Conducted by bdjobs.com and Prothom-alojobs.com etc. Hiring Faculty from outside and organizing different training program for the need of employees is a unique feature of Unilever.
List of Training Program Employees of Unilever Usually Attended
* Training on Selling Skill * Advertising and Brand Management * Market Development * HR Summit * Strategies for New Product Launching * Training on negotiable act * Money market account * Territory Management * Customer Relation & Behavior Modeling * Risk Management * Communication Skill
Training Methods Used by Unilever:
* Training institute * Lecture method * Role play * Business games * External consultants * Experience sharing by senior management * Job rotation * e-learning
Figure 1: Various Training Methods of Unilever
Different Types of Training Program:
Unilever Bangladesh arranges different types of training program such as:
* Induction training | * Skill development( Current Position) | * Skill development (after promotion ) | * Knowledge development ( Current Position) | * Knowledge development ( after promotion) |
Figure 2: Different Types of Training Program of Unilever
Approach of employee regarding frequency and effectiveness of the trainingWe asked the employees (number was 10) during the interview how they feel about the training provided by the organization the response was very much positive from the employee. Though they have some recommendation however they feel it very helpful for their development.Figure 3: Employee Feedback regarding Training FrequencyTraining and Development Practices of the Bashundhara Group | |
Training activities of Bashundhara is focused on transforming its human capital to achieve business excellence by increasing the bandwidth of Bashundhara workforce. To win present and future challenges Bashundhara identify knowledge and skill sets that are pivotal factors and Bashundhara design a variety of programs so that achieving such success by using creativity, agility, flexibility, skill diversity and IT technology becomes a custom. Bashundhara scan external environment for comparing industry practices, benchmark best practices and implement competency management programs to offer outstanding services to its valued customers. Enormous and spontaneous shared efforts are made with the strategic intent of achieving excellence in delivering customized services to meet the ever changing development needs of the human resources. Corporate Values of Bashundhara are embedded in the process of designing, developing and delivering each activity of Training Department throughout the organization.
Method Used in Training Need Analysis
* Assessing new employees Training Needs * Assessing current employees Training Needs
On the Basis of this Bashundhara Introduce following program:
* On the Job Training * Job Inclusion Training
Types of Training Bashundhara Offer for their Employee
* cGMP perspective and validation * Labor laws for Managers * Basic Inventory Management * Asset Management * Business process flow Maximization * Analysis and Decision Making tool for Finance Manager * Risk management * Supervisory leadership skill * Communication Skill at work place * Time management
Various Training Methods Used by Bashundhara
* Training institute * Experience sharing by senior management (Within the business division not formal session) * Job rotation
Figure 4: Various Training Methods of Bashundhara Group
Different Types of Training Program Used by Bashundhara
Bashundhara Group arranges mainly
* On the job training’ for the employees * Training after promotion * Induction Training * Training for introduction of new techniques etc.
Figure 5: Different Types of Training Program of Bashundhara
Approach of Employee Regarding Frequency and Effectiveness of the Training
We asked the employees (number was 10) during the interview how they feel about the training provided by the organization and we got a mixed response many of them were positive however a good number of employee express their dissatisfaction mostly due to the absence of a organized training department and feel that frequency of the training is not up to the mark.
Figure 6: Employee Feedback Regarding Training Frequency
Finding and Analysis
Comparison between the training of Unilever and Bashundhara Group
Feature | Unilever | Bashundhara Group | In house training facility | Yes | No | Training Department | Organized and Specific training department exists. | No Organized and Specific training department exists. | Criteria for Training Need Analysis | Job description, Job enlargement, Promotion, Introduction of new technology, specific skill development. | Job description, Promotion, Introduction of new technology. | Overseas Training | Frequent | Rare | Training Method | Mixture of Different method | Mostly external Training Institute | Facilities provided in the Training | Meal, Transportation, Allowance, Accommodation(depending on the situation) | Meal, Transportation, Allowance, Accommodation(depending on the situation) | Minimum Training Length per Year | Over 40 hours | No such specified rule | Type of Training | Balanced mixture of induction training, skill and knowledge development. | Mainly induction training and skill development for the current employees. | Overall satisfaction | Very satisfied (90% are satisfied) | Mixed (60% are satisfied) | Training after promotion | Each and every employee get training after promotion | It is not very frequent and not every employee get training after promotion |
From the discussion and comparison it can be said that both the organization are well concern about the training of their employee and trainings are encouraged as tool for the development of the employee. Though the view for the training is positive for both the organization but the initiative for arrange training for the employees are not in same manner. Unilever has a well organized training department that arranges regular training program for their employee according to the Training need analysis. They arrange in house training program by internal and external faculty, regular training in the outside training institute. Formal group discussion and role playing session are common along with e-learning session. Key feature of the Unilever is each of their employee get training after promotion.
On the contrary Bashundhara does not have any specified training department. Training are arranges outside training institute on the recommendation and concern of the own department of the organization. Training after promotion is not a common practice rather it happened occasionally.
After going through the primary and secondary data following recommendation are made in relation with the training needs assessment of Bashundhara Group and Unilever Bangladesh.
For Bashundhara Group
* A proper training department or Institute has to be developed for dealing these training related matters as internationally standard. * Steps have to be under taken for building proper resources for giving training internally. * Proactive approach would be better than reactive approach because anticipating needs is better than waiting until they cause problem. * A proper training planner has to be made to send executives for training.
For Unilever Bangladesh
* The Training Methods & Policy can be updated by continuing survey on competitive business organization and by taking current opinion of the Trainee & Training Instructors. * In case of International Training-the policy of the company should be developed.
Training and Development should be a continuous process for any organization for its all employee. The world is advancing with the advancement of everything from technology to human resource department, finance, sales, marketing, information technology etc and to accustom with this advancement everybody needs appropriate training.
An organization has various aspects, fields and discipline of works. It is not so easy to access the total need of training and as well as field of training of the officers of multidiscipline on the part of a trainee researcher within a very short period. But still then few recommendation are made on the basis of the analytical findings of study of training and development in Bangladesh.
1. Rosemary Harrison (2005). Learning and Development. CIPD Publishing. p. 5. ISBN 1-84398-050-9. 2. Patrick J. Montana and Bruce H. Charnov (2000). "Training and Development". Management. Barron 's Educational Series. p. 225. ISBN 0-7641-1276-7. 3. Thomas N. Garavan, Pat Costine, and Noreen Heraty (1995). "Training and Development: Concepts, Attitudes, and Issues". Training and Development in Ireland. Cengage Learning EMEA. p. 1. ISBN 1-872853-92-7 4. Personnel Management- Michael J Jucius. 5. Effective training (2nd Edition)-P. Nick Blanchard& James W. Thacker 6. www.google.com./training and development/http
Bibliography: 1. Rosemary Harrison (2005). Learning and Development. CIPD Publishing. p. 5. ISBN 1-84398-050-9. 2. Patrick J. Montana and Bruce H. Charnov (2000). "Training and Development". Management. Barron 's Educational Series. p. 225. ISBN 0-7641-1276-7. 3. Thomas N. Garavan, Pat Costine, and Noreen Heraty (1995). "Training and Development: Concepts, Attitudes, and Issues". Training and Development in Ireland. Cengage Learning EMEA. p. 1. ISBN 1-872853-92-7 4. Personnel Management- Michael J Jucius. 5. Effective training (2nd Edition)-P. Nick Blanchard& James W. Thacker 6. www.google.com./training and development/http
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