Traffic Signal Design

Topics: Traffic light, Road, Traffic Pages: 74 (18776 words) Published: September 4, 2013
Traffic Signal Design Of
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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Urbanization can be defined as a concentration of people in a geographic area who can support themselves from the city’s economic activities on a fairly permanent basis. The city can be center of industry, exchange, education, government, religious activity, tourism, or involve all these activities. These diverse areas of opportunity attract people from rural area/smaller towns/other cities to the cities where the opportunities’ and life style quality match their aspirations.

Urban areas have many obvious faults insofar as their services to people are concerned. They can be overcrowded, contain large amounts of substandard housing, be polluted (air, noise, environmental), be centers of unemployment, and have vested interest groups. Taxation tends to be high and services less than adequate. However, with all of these faults, urban areas are here to stay. The charge to planners, at all levels, public and private, is to find ways of making these essential elements in our social system work better, more efficiently and thus make our cities better places to live in.

1.1 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING:
In the society of today the road network is of great importance. As cities grows so does the needs of transportation and this puts an increased pressure on the infrastructure. Thus it is of great importance to have a reliable and redundant infrastructure for the traffic, to make sure that it works even during bad conditions. There are several different hazards which may have an impact on the road infrastructure such as for example natural catastrophes, accidents or failure of parts of the road network. Since the different infrastructure systems get more and intertwined in the society of today and the society becomes more vulnerable for catastrophes, these hazards might have effects on other infrastructure systems as well. Thus more and more researchers start to look at the risk of possible cascaded consequences in interconnected networks

Transport planning has been historically concerned with travel behavior and the transportation system in some nominally ‘typical’ conditions under which the networks were designed for certain demand and certain capacity. In the past insufficient consideration has been given to the robustness and associated reliability of road networks. It is only during the PDF Creator - PDF4Free v2.0 http://www.pdf4free.com

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last decade that considerable research interest has started to emerge for this important aspect of the transportation system.
While the initial trend of this ideology appears to have derived from the study of major natural events––such as earthquakes affecting the ‘connectivity’ of a road network,(Bell and Lida 1997) it has had a wider impact on the thinking of the way in which less severe, but more frequently-occurring, events may affect the operation of a network. These events include minor accidents, on-street parking violations, accidents, snow, flooding,road maintenance and traffic signal failures, all of which would lead to variations in link capacities or free-run speeds. In addition, daily variations in activity patterns, manifested in the origin– destination {O–D} trip matrix, mean that the flows on the roads also have a major part to play in explaining variations in network performance. (Clark and Watling 2005) If transportation planners were able to quantify the impact on variable network performance of such elements, then it would open the possibility of directing both the design and economic estimation of transport policy measures toward an improved treatment of such uncertainty 1.2 TRAFFIC ENGINEERING (TRANSPORTATION):

Traffic engineering is a branch of transportation engineering that uses engineering techniques to achieve the safe and efficient movement of people and goods. It focuses mainly on research and construction of the immobile infrastructure necessary for...
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