Most organizational management theories descend either from Frederick Taylor’s scientific management theory or from Elton Mayo 's human relations model. Total Quality Management (TQM) theory grew out of existing organizational management theories, in part, as a response to the problems in those theories. Edwards Deming and Joseph Juran are most responsible for the development of TQM. Deming and Juran began work on TQM in the 1930s and continued shaping the management model into the 1990s. During the 1930s, Deming and Juran studied with Walter Shewhart who developed Statistical Quality Control (SQC) theory. SQC argued that “as quality improves, costs go down and productivity increases.” SQC provided for continuous improvement of quality and productivity by using statistics to identify areas for improvement. As a theory of organizational effectiveness, Total Quality Management (TQM) theory hold that “performance is enhanced by designing products and services to meet or exceed customer expectation by empowering workers to find and eliminate all factors that undermine product or service.” TQM promotes organizational effectiveness through 1) promoting stakeholder satisfaction; 2) pursuing continuous improvement; and 3) fostering proactive leadership. This essay will introduce these principles and assess the relevance of TQM as a theory of organizational effectiveness for the School of Information Systems Admissions Office (IS Admissions), an organization committed to excellence.
Promoting stakeholder satisfaction
TQM theory holds that “quality can only be defined by those who receive the product or service, including stakeholders.” Accordingly, public managers should engage their staff in identifying the organization’s internal and external stakeholders and by determining the criteria that each uses to judge the organization to be successful. This process suggests that the effective public organization is one that satisfies the expectations