TODDLERHOOD (Ages 2 and 3)
The developmental tasks related to toddlerhood are fantasy play and self-control. Fantasy play is used as a sort of communication; a child who is not fully able to manipulate their language can express and ventilate their emotions in a way that the caregiver can more easily comprehend. Toddlers use fantasy play to create situations they wish would happen or to recreate a situation they wish had ended differently. Self-control is a toddler's ability to recover from emotional distress on their own. Toddlers use self-control when they want something they can't have, or when they are forced into a situation they do not want to be in. For example, a child may want a candy bar, but the caregiver refuses to give it to them immediately. The toddler uses their ability of self-control to wait patiently until they are allowed to have the candy bar. Psychosocial Crisis
The psychosocial crisis of toddlerhood is autonomy versus shame and doubt. Autonomy is a toddler's sense that they can do things on their own instead of with the assistence of the caregiver. A toddler's ability to do something on their own boosts their self-esteem in acomplishing tasks and makes them more confident in themselves later on in life. If a caregiver is supportive and praising when a toddler does something correctly on their own, the positive outcome of the psychosocial crisis for this stage of life is achieved. Shame and doubt is a toddler's sense that they cannot do anything right on their own, causing them to second-guess themselves more often that not. Shame and doubt is the negative outcome of this psychosocial crisis, and it can be caused from caregivers who are not praising and supportive of their child's sense of autonomy. If, for example, the caregiver scolds the child for doing something wrong every time they attempt to complete the task, the child will not be confident in themselves whenever they try to do something on their own. Later...
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