Theoretical Knowledge And Professional Practice

Topics: Developmental psychology, Psychology, Jean Piaget Pages: 4 (526 words) Published: March 9, 2015
Theoretical Knowledge and Professional Practice 

Erik Erikson
• An individual needs to resolve a crisis in each of the eight stages of psychosocial  • development in order to progress to the next stage, with outcomes based on  • how each crisis is resolved. 

Ivan Pavlov
• Behavior is the result of associations formed between behavior and positive and negative consequences, or the associations formed between a stimulus and a response.  • Behaviorism is based on objective and concrete observations of behavior. 

Lev Vygotsky
• Social interaction and participation in cultural activities are necessary for healthy development,  • and children learn through relationships with adults by communicating, playing, and socializing.  • Children learn by going a step further than their current level of competence,  • with a caregiver providing maximum help when children are learning initially,  • and reducing help as children gain more independence (i.e., scaffolding). 

Robert Siegler
• In memory and attention, the storage, organization, and retrieval of information  occurs similar to computer inputs and outputs. 
• Computer systems and technology contribute to the terminology used in this theory. 

Urie Bronfenbrenner
• All contexts in which a child participates (either directly or indirectly) have a unique  • Influence on that child’s development. 
• Different contexts, from the closest influences to the most distant influences,  interact to uniquely affect a child’s development. 

John Bowlby
• Attachment is a close and enduring bond between a child and a caregiver.  • Based on sensitive and responsive care, a child knows that his or her needs will be met and uses the caregiver as a safe base from which to explore the environment.  • In association with attachment theory, Mary Ainsworth discussed that children can  • be characterized as having different types of attachment based on interactions with  the primary attachment figure. 

Albert Bandura...
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