Theoretical Knowledge and Professional Practice
• An individual needs to resolve a crisis in each of the eight stages of psychosocial • development in order to progress to the next stage, with outcomes based on • how each crisis is resolved.
• Behavior is the result of associations formed between behavior and positive and negative consequences, or the associations formed between a stimulus and a response. • Behaviorism is based on objective and concrete observations of behavior.
• Social interaction and participation in cultural activities are necessary for healthy development, • and children learn through relationships with adults by communicating, playing, and socializing. • Children learn by going a step further than their current level of competence, • with a caregiver providing maximum help when children are learning initially, • and reducing help as children gain more independence (i.e., scaffolding).
• In memory and attention, the storage, organization, and retrieval of information occurs similar to computer inputs and outputs.
• Computer systems and technology contribute to the terminology used in this theory.
• All contexts in which a child participates (either directly or indirectly) have a unique • Influence on that child’s development.
• Different contexts, from the closest influences to the most distant influences, interact to uniquely affect a child’s development.
• Attachment is a close and enduring bond between a child and a caregiver. • Based on sensitive and responsive care, a child knows that his or her needs will be met and uses the caregiver as a safe base from which to explore the environment. • In association with attachment theory, Mary Ainsworth discussed that children can • be characterized as having different types of attachment based on interactions with the primary attachment figure.
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