Opium War: In 1840, Britain started the Opium War in China. Because of corruption of the Chinese government and Advanced British army, in the end of the war, China was defeated. Japan shocked.
China, a wealth and strong empire, an advanced country Japan learned from for thousand years, failed in a war with a real empire. Japanese contemplated and hesitated. What they should do when they have to face those strong enemies. I think that one of the reason why the Black Ships arrived in Japan in 1853 and forced Japanese to accept them, and Japan did so, even with welcoming attitudes. Besides, at that time, Japan didn’t have ability to defeat those aggressors. More and more western countries came to Japan with new technologies, new products and new work system, etc. Japan is closed for too long time. After saw all those achievements from Industry Revolution by Japanese’s own eyes, they found the distance between themselves and advanced western countries. All those new things cause the fail of Tokugawa Bakufu. Meiji Restoration started.
Government during Meiji Restoration: In April 6 1868, the Oath in Five Articles was published and became the basic guiding principle of the government. Meiji period began. The new government of Japan applied a lot of policy during that time. They changed the traditional society structure. Samurai was no more the lords. Businessman had more attention than before. Government also support a lot industry to get start, the earlier one is filature. In 1882, Japan Central Bank was set.