October 31st, 2012
Issues in this unit: racism, war, discrimination, etc.
WWII; Race war
Strong ethnocentrism. Nativism doesn’t have any institutional power. Nativism becomes more a national policy, national identity.
In Meiji period, Japanese were aware of what happened in China; change of terminology (people stop referring China as the middle kingdom, and refers it as Shina?, reflect a different stand towards China). Ethnocentrism has a different grounding.
Difference between ethnocentrism and racism: Racism is a form of ethnocentrism trying to root itself scientifically.
Race doesn’t exist as such but racism existed and it’s grounded in different measurements, scientific measurements.
1860 (In Meiji period): sending people in the United States to learn who these people are, their lifestyles, etc. (first encounter of racism). No caste system, confrontation with social Darwinism. Japan is launching into creating a nation; an empire. Expansion of the empire by forming equal treaty with Korea. 1894-5: First Sino-Japanese war with China. Outcome of this war: Japan established a public government in Seoul. Japan occupies Korea and Manchuria + Formosa (Taiwan) were under Japan’s dominance. 1904-5: Conflict for control of Korea and Manchuria. Japan (victorious) against Russia. Japanese empire defeated a Western towel (a big event in media; lots of novel written –science-fiction-, yellow creatures are invading the western continent, fear/taking over of the world by the yellow race) Japan situated on the same power as westerners. After the Russo-Japanese war: Japan start to build infrastructures in Korea. Multi-cultural army (no need to be Japanese in order to be in the Japanese army). Japanese army encouraged intermarriage between different nations within the army. The nation-state is struggling between multi-ethnicity and mono-ethnicity. Tend to think that Japan is a mono-cultural and mono-ethnic country now, but it is not true. Japan is a
Bibliography: _____________________________________________________________________________________ November 21st, 2012 ________________________________________________________________________________ November 26th, 2012